OD Course Descriptions: Academic Year 2013-2014

First Year: Fall Semester

Human Bioscience I                                                                        
Course Coordinator: J. Rapp
BVS-121FA                                                             
4 Credits

This course integrates histology, physiology and biochemistry. It begins with a discussion of the basic properties of water and how these properties affect living cells. This is followed by a discussion of basic thermodynamic principles as these apply to biological systems. We then consider each of the categories of biological macromolecules in detail: proteins (including glycoproteins and the oxygen-binding proteins, hemoglobin and myoglobin), enzymes (starting with a discussion of the basic principles of kinetics as these apply to enzyme-catalyzed reactions), carbohydrates and lipids and how these macromolecular components contribute to the architecture and function of cell membranes.

This is followed by a basic discussion of metabolism including glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. The basic structure and function of the eukaryotic cell, including cell signaling and transport, is then presented followed by a discussion of the histology, physiology and biochemistry of tissues beginning with epithelial, followed by connective tissue muscle and nervous tissues. 

The cardiovascular system discussion will include the histology and physiologic properties of cardiac muscle, cardiodynamics, blood structure and function and hemodynamics of the circulation. Clinical correlations of various biochemical and physiological abnormalities will be presented throughout the course.

Gross Anatomy                                                                                         
Course Coordinator: Victoria Harnik
BVS-106FA                        
3.5 Credits               

The immediate objective of the human gross anatomy course is to introduce the student to the structural organization of the human body at the macroscopic level. The long-term objective of this course is to provide the student with the tools, time and place to become an independent, self-motivated learner who can confidently use morphological information (data) to interpret and solve biomedical problems at any point in his/her career. The course begins with the study of the thorax and the basics of the peripheral nervous system. In-depth study of the anatomical regions that surround or are responsible for the neurovascular supply of the orbit is followed by the gross anatomy and macroscopic structure of the orbit including the bony orbit, the fascial organization of the orbit, the extra-ocular muscles and their function, orbital neurovascular bundles, the functional fibers of the cranial nerves and the eye. The course is organized around the laboratory; participation in the lab is required and assessed. During the laboratory, the class is broken up into teams of students who examine each of the stations that are arranged for each laboratory session. Discussions in the laboratory require students to verbalize the information gathered to foster students' synthesis of information and communication skills as future clinicians.

Ocular Anatomy, Biochemistry & Physiology I                            
Course Coordinator: Richard Madonna       
BVS-181FA                            
2 Credits

The OABP sequence is given as two courses in the Fall and Spring semesters of the first year. Modules are delivered that cover the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of the eye, related visual structures and the visual pathway. The course is designed to emphasize the anatomy and underlying physiology of the eye and visual system particularly in relationship to a variety of important clinical conditions. Course material taught in histology, gross anatomy, neuroanatomy and sensory visual function is heavily integrated into OABP and is emphasized throughout the course.

In OABP I we cover the anatomy and histological structure of the outer and middle coats of the eye, the physiology of corneal transparency and the fundamentals of the eyes regulation of fluid formation and flow. The course also includes segments on structure and function of the ocular appendages and the physiology and biochemistry of the tear film. The anatomy, development, molecular composition and metabolism of the lens are discussed in the context of changes in the lens that occur during aging, including the biochemistry of cataract formation. The neuroanatomical basis for pupillary and accommodative responses and their clinical context is also covered.

Integrated Optics I                                                                                  
Course Coordinator: Steven Schwartz
BVS-131FA
4.5 Credits                                                          

Students learn the fundamentals of geometrical and visual optics as they apply to clinical practice. Topics covered include refraction at spherical and plane surfaces; image formation; thin and thick lenses; spherical ametropia; accommodation; astigmatism and cylindrical lenses; prisms; depth of field; magnification; retinal image size; reflection; and aberrations. Problem-solving skills are emphasized with the goal of developing an intuitive sense of optics that underlies successful clinical interventions. This is the first in a three-course sequence on clinical optics.

Optometric Theory and Procedures I                                              
Course Coordinator: Mark Rosenfield            
CEX-141FA                         
4.5 Credits

This course will introduce the student to the following topics:

  • The optometrist as a healthcare practitioner
  • Clinical record keeping
  • Vision screenings
  • Measurement and correction of refractive error
  • Examination of the external and internal structures of the eye
  • Assessment of oculomotor function at distance and near
  • Treatment of oculomotor abnormalities

Additionally, in the clinical laboratory students will learn to observe patients behavior, construct working hypotheses, carry out appropriate examination procedures and gather data to diagnose and correct refractive anomalies of the human eye.

Integrative Seminar I                                                                                  
Course Coordinator: Susan Schuettenberg   
CEI-1FA                                  
2.0 Credits

Integrative Seminar I serves to teach first-year optometry students how the material in the first-year curriculum relates to their role as healthcare providers.  This will be achieved through a synthesis of lecture, clinical observation, case-based learning and small-group discussion. Once a week, the entire class will attend a one-hour lecture with topics reflective of the ongoing course material being presented in other courses. For two additional hours per week, small seminar group observation and discussion will take place. The seminar meetings will reinforce the lecture concepts through clinical observation and case discussions relating to those observations. Lecture and small-group discussions will include the participation of both basic and clinical science faculty in order to promote integration of the curricular material and to show how the care provided is related to what is currently being learned. This will enable the future clinician to make informed clinical decisions, encourage critical thinking and promote lifelong independent learning. 

First Year: Spring Semester

Human Bioscience II                                                                        
Course Coordinator: Suresh Viswanathan
BVS-122SA                                                     
3 Credits

  • This course is a continuation of Human Bioscience I and will integrate the biochemistry, physiology and histology of organ systems, including gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, respiratory and renal.
  • The discussion of the gastrointestinal system will include cellular respiration, oxidative phosphorylation, nutrition, histology of the GI tract and accessory organs and GI physiology.
  • The cardiovascular system discussion will include the histology and physiologic properties of cardiac muscle, cardiodynamics, blood structure and function and hemodynamics.
  • The discussion of the respiratory system will focus on histologic properties, the mechanics of respiration, O2 and CO2 transport through the blood and control of ventilation.
  • Renal system histology and physiology will be discussed next, including glomerular filtration, renal filtration and transport and acid-base balance.
  • Clinical correlations of various abnormalities will be presented throughout the course.

Ocular Anatomy, Biochemistry & Physiology II                                   
Course Coordinator: Richard Madonna
BVS-182A                                         
3 Credits

Part II is a continuation of OABP I. It begins with the study of the anatomy of the vitreous, retina, optic nerve and visual pathway with emphasis on the anatomical basis of diseases.  The biochemistry of the visual process including the biochemistry and molecular biology of rhodopsin and cone pigments and the events that occur during the visual cascade will be studied including a discussion of color blindness, congenital night blindness and hereditary retinal degeneration. Nutritional and biochemical implications in age-related ocular disease will then be explored. Processing of visual information by the retina, lateral geniculate nucleus and visual cortex will be discussed next. The course ends with the study of the development of the eye and visual system and related developmental anomalies.

Integrated Optics II                                                                                  
Course Coordinator: Phil Kruger
BVS-132SA
4.0 Credits

Students learn the fundamentals of wave optics and physiological optics as they apply to image formation and clinical practice. The course integrates optical, biological, perceptual and clinical aspects. Topics include model eyes, Purkinje images, interference, diffraction, scatter and polarization, blur of the retinal image, aberrations of the eye, modulation transfer function, contrast sensitivity, photometry, fiber-optic nature of cones, entoptic images, cues for ocular accommodation, quantum optics and lasers. The goal is an intuitive understanding of the optical aspects of vision as related to clinical care. This is the second in a three-course sequence on clinical optics.

Visual Function: Sensory  
Course Coordinators:                                                                      
Module A: Steven H Schwartz
Module B: Harold Sedgwick
BVS-170SA
4.5 Credits

This course covers monocular sensory processes and visual perception. Topics include spatial and temporal visual processes; visual adaptation; color vision; psychophysical methodology; information processing; gross electrical potentials; basic visual development and senescence; form, space and motion perception; visually-guided action; and basic visual-cognitive processes. Topics are discussed in terms of their normal function and clinically relevant deviations from normal. The anatomical and neurophysiological bases for visual performance are examined and related to clinical testing. Laboratories emphasize the measurement of these functions in assessing the visual capacities of individual patients and the demonstration of relevant visual phenomena.

Optometric Theory and Procedures II                                             
Course Coordinator: Mark Rosenfield     
CEX-142SA                                    
4.5 Credits

This course is a continuation of Optometric Theory and Procedures I. This course will introduce the student to the following topics:

  • The optometrist as a healthcare practitioner
  • Clinical record keeping
  • Vision screenings
  • Measurement and correction of refractive error
  • Examination of the external and internal structures of the eye.
  • Assessment of oculomotor function at distance and near
  • Treatment of oculomotor abnormalities

Additionally, in the clinical laboratory, students will learn to observe patients behavior, construct working hypotheses, carry out appropriate examination procedures and gather data to diagnose and correct refractive anomalies of the human eye.

Integrative Seminar II                                                                             
Course Coordinator: Susan Schuettenberg
CEI-2FA                                  
2.0 Credits

Integrative Seminar II is a continuation of Integrative Seminar I, with a slightly different emphasis.  As the student gains a greater knowledge base and becomes more familiar with the practice of optometry, the seminar will show how the care provided is based on the student's foundation of knowledge. Clinical observations will continue and be augmented by the provision of direct patient care during clinical screenings. Multiple lecturers will continue to address the group as a whole, which serves to place an emphasis on how the basic science courses form the foundation for the practice of optometry. By observing and discussing patient care strategies, utilizing critical thinking skills and introducing the concept of evidence-based medicine and other resources, students will acquire the skills necessary for lifelong independent clinical learning and decision making.

Second Year: Fall Semester

Human Bioscience III                                                                       
Course Coordinator:  Suresh Viswanathan
BVS-223FA    
3 Credits                                       

This course begins with the histology and physiology of the endocrine system followed by the histology of the lymphoid system. As a logical progression, the next area is the study of basic immunology and pathology including the specifics of humoral and cell mediated immunity, hypersensitivity and the complement pathways. In a continuum between immunology and pathology, the effect of stress on cells, the different types of cell death and the host response to infection will be discussed. Basic pathologic mechanisms and patho-physiology as well as the general medical aspects of selected diseases, particularly those with important ocular manifestations are discussed.

Microbiology                                                                                 
Course Coordinator: Ann Beaton     
BVS-204AFA                                          
2.5 Credits

This course will provide an overview of parasitology, virology, fungi and antiviral and antiparasitic chemotherapeutic agents. There will also be several lectures specifically on ocular microbiology. The material learned in Microbiology II will be useful in clinical practice in terms of understanding how and where the various parasites and viruses infect and multiply and thus provide a background for the most appropriate form of treatment. In addition, important public health information in terms of viral vaccines and treatment of these diseases is imparted to students that may impact not only their clinical practice but their personal health and well-being.

Pharmacology I                                                                                         
Course Coordinator: Miduturu Srinivas    
BVS-205FB
3.0 Credits                                        

A fundamental course in pharmacology designed to acquaint the student with general principles of drug action on organ systems, including the eye. The methods of administration, pharmacological actions, clinical applications and adverse effects of drugs in current clinical use will be considered in detail.

Integrated Optics III                                                                                  
Course Coordinator: Cristina Llerena-Law
BVS-233FA                                           
4.0 Credits

Students obtain the knowledge and skills necessary to provide modern dispensing services. Optical and physical properties of ophthalmic prisms and lenses are covered in depth. Topics include lens materials, thickness, design and enhancements; ophthalmic standards; verification; safety, absorptive, high prescription and special design lenses; vertical imbalance; frame specification, design, selection and adjustment; and occupational eyewear. Laboratories are geared to developing skills in verification and dispensing.

Visual Function: Sensorimotor I                                                                                               
Course Coordinator: Jordan Pola
BVS-271FA                                                                            
3 Credits

This course is concerned with oculomotor behavior and physiology. It provides the student with a broad appreciation of the characteristics of eye movements and the functional properties of the mechanisms (e.g., neurophysiological networks, extraocular muscles) responsible for generating these movements. A central feature of the course is the utilization of control systems theory as a means to integrate and simplify some the complexities of the oculomotor behavioral and physiological data. As well as lectures, the course includes laboratory studies of basic quantitative aspects of fast and slow eye movements, and also the manner in which simple functional models of the oculomotor system can account for both normal and abnormal eye movements.

Optometric Theory and Procedures III                                                   
Course Coordinator: Joan K. Portello
CEX-243FA                                                
3.5 Credits

This course introduces advanced diagnostic and therapeutic procedures as well as providing an overview of disorders of the anterior and posterior segments of the eye. Along with the skills covered in the Optometric Theory and Procedures I and II courses, the intern will become proficient with the slit lamp biomicroscope, the use of diagnostic pharmaceutical agents and applanation tonometry. Examination of the anterior and posterior segments will be performed using gonioscopy, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy, contact and non-contact lens fundoscopy. Diagnostic testing including laser interferometry, PAM and ultrasonography will be reviewed. Students will learn to determine appropriate testing procedures, analyze and formulate treatment plans and present cases for review.

Integrative Seminar III                                                                                 
Course Coordinator: Teresa Lowe
CEI– 2FA                                                 
2.0 Credits

Integrative Seminar III is designed to facilitate the student's transition into clinical internship by using an integrative approach. The course builds upon past Integrative Seminars, providing the student with an environment leading to the development of informed clinical decision making, critical thinking and lifelong independent learning. The student gains a foundation for optometric practice by learning to employ scientific knowledge, utilization of informational resources, doctor-patient interactive skills and clinic participation to form the basis of an individualized patient evaluation, assessment and plan. This will be achieved through a synthesis of classroom teaching, case-based learning, small-group discussion and clinical experience. Lecture and group discussions will include the participation of both basic and clinical science faculty to foster integration of curricular material. As a means of entry into clinical practice, the highest standards of professional conduct and responsibility will be emphasized throughout the course.

Second Year: Spring Semester

Ocular Disease I                                                                           
Course Coordinator: Mitch Dul
BVS-251SA                                            
4.5 Credits

The course is the first in a series of three courses detailing the pathogenesis, physiologic response, clinical manifestations, treatment and rehabilitation of conditions of the body and eye in response to local and systemic pathologic processes (e.g., infection, trauma, neoplasm) and disorders (e.g., congenital) with emphasis on the conditions of the anterior segment of the eye, related systemic conditions and the glaucomas. Epidemiological data is included to allow students to differentiate between high-probability and/or high-risk conditions and low probability and/or low risk conditions. Previous course work in anatomy, physiology, pathology, epidemiology, monocular sensory processing, pharmacology and systemic medicine will provide the student with the foundation for understanding the principles and practices covered in this course.

Pharmacology II                                                                                  
Course Coordinator: Diane T. Adamczyk         
BVS-206SA                           
2.5 Credits

Pharmacology II covers ocular pharmacology. This course builds on the material covered in Pharmacology I as it relates specifically to ocular drugs and drugs utilized to treat ocular conditions. The student will learn the basic concepts of the drug, mechanism of action, drug-drug interactions, contraindications and its effects on the body, organs and various systems. The fundamental pharmacology as it relates to the drug's ocular related clinical utilization will be discussed.

Contact Lens I                                                                                     
Course Coordinator: David Libassi 
BVS-261SA                                              
3 Credits

This is the first half of an extensive course spanning two semesters on the art and science of prescribing contact lenses. This course will develop the principles of contact lens physiology and optics and integrate them with your understanding of the cornea, tear film and eyelid anatomy. Ocular measurements necessary for contact lens design will be correlated with on-eye evaluation of soft and rigid contact lenses. Oxygen requirements for safe lens wear will be contrasted for daily wear soft and rigid lenses, extended wear hydrogel lenses and silicone-hydrogel lenses worn for continuous wear. This semester we will emphasize standard soft and rigid contact lens design, fitting and prescribing, as well as problem-solving in order to prepare you for fitting basic types of contact lenses as you start patient care. The laboratory sessions will support the lectures, providing the student with skills needed for lens handling, verification, pre-exam testing, lens selection, on-eye evaluation, patient education, patient instruction and problem solving.

Visual Function: Sensorimotor II                                                      
Course Coordinator: Kenneth Ciuffreda
BVS-272SA                                      
3.0 Credits

An analysis of the geometrical, psychophysical and physiological sensory and motor aspects of binocular vision, including their clinical implications. Topics include visual direction and correspondence, binocular summation/averaging, rivalry, fusion, the horopter, steropsis, optically-based perceptual distortions/adaptation and aniseikonia, fixation disparity and vergence/accommodation motor/perceptual interactions. Laboratory sessions cover many of these topics.

Children's Vision and Learning I                                                        
Course Coordinator: Robert Duckman    
BVS-217SA                             
2.5 Credits

This behavioral and clinically oriented course is intended to give the second-year student in the professional program a basic understanding of human development and development of basic visual anatomy and visual function. Such topics as refractive error, visual acuity, accommodation, binocularity, contrast sensitivity function, color vision and ocular motility will be explored. Practical applications for clinical usage will be considered and normative data will be discussed. Anomalous development and pathologies will be presented. The student will be prepared for clinical interaction with infant, toddler and pediatric patients. The course will cover diagnostic methodologies that are applicable to these children, as well as management of their visual anomalies. Child abuse will be considered in terms of identification and reporting. Ocular medications for children will be discussed. Current clinical trials in pediatric optometry/ophthalmology will be presented. In addition, discussion of children with special needs will cover such developmental anomalies as Down Syndrome, Fragile-X Syndrome, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Cerebral Palsy and Mental Retardation (ID=Intellectual Disability). The course will also include management of refractive error, binocular anomalies, pathology and pharmacological management in the pediatric patient.

Optometric Theory and Procedures IV                                                    
Course Coordinator: Joan K. Portello                                              
CEX-244A
2.5 Credits

Development and enhancement of clinical diagnostic and treatment procedures taught in Optometric Theory and Procedures III will be emphasized together with a variety of additional therapeutic techniques. Credentialing for patient care is expected by the middle of the semester. The course will provide an introduction to the primary care clinic, emphasizing patient examination, assessment and plan and critical thinking.

Integrative Seminar IV                                                                                 
Course Coordinator: Teresa Lowe           
CEI–2SA                                  
2.0 Credits    

Integrative Seminar IV is designed to facilitate the student's transition into clinical internship by using an integrative approach. The course builds upon past Integrative Seminars, providing the student with an environment leading to the development of informed clinical decision making, critical thinking and lifelong independent learning. The student gains a foundation for optometric practice by learning to employ scientific knowledge, utilization of informational resources, doctor-patient interactive skills and clinic participation to form the basis of an individualized patient evaluation, assessment and plan. This will be achieved through a synthesis of classroom teaching, case-based learning, small-group discussion and clinical experience. Lecture and group discussions will include the participation of both basic and clinical science faculty to foster integration of curricular material. As a means of entry into clinical practice, the highest standards of professional conduct and responsibility will be emphasized throughout the course.

Third Year: Fall Semester (Summer Season)

Neuroanatomy                                                                                               
Course Coordinator: Kalman Rubinson                                                  
BVS-315RA
3 Credits

The purpose of this course is to educate the student about the basic structure and function of the human central nervous system. This encompasses human neuroanatomy as well as some associated elements of neurophysiology and neurology. Beginning at the cellular level and spanning the nervous system from the periphery through spinal cord, brainstem and cerebrum, the course will cover all the major functional systems, their pathways and the consequence of pathology. The long-term objective is to provide the student of optometry, as a professional health care provider, with the capability to recognize neurological issues in his patients based on an understanding of the relationship of the visual system to the rest of the nervous system in health and disease. In addition to illustrated lectures there will be laboratory studies of the human brain and small-group conferences in which the clinical significance of neurological systems will be emphasized.

Epidemiology                                                                                                  
Course Coordinator: Mark Sherstinsky
CEP-304RA                                                 
1.0 Credits

Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health and disease in different human populations and the application of methods to improve disease outcomes. As such, epidemiology is the basic science of public health and underpins the practice of healthcare at multiple levels (global, national, community and clinical). This course is designed to introduce optometry students to the background, basic principles and methods of public health epidemiology with an emphasis on ocular health and vision. The overall course goal is to demonstrate the fundamental importance that the practice of public health research (which utilizes epidemiologic principles) has for your clinical experience and careers and to allow you to critically read and evaluate epidemiologic studies in the medical and optometric literature. An understanding of epidemiological principles allows clinicians to make informed clinical decisions about patient health and optometric practice. 
 

Integrative Seminar V                                                                           
Course Coordinator: Julia Appel
CEI-3RA
0.5 Credit                                                             

Integrative Seminar V is a continuation of the prior Integrative Seminar courses where interns learn in small group settings how to apply information gained in the professional program curriculum to patient care. The emphasis will be on developing the ability to think critically and obtaining the skills necessary for independent, life-long learning. The one-hour course will take place weekly as an extension of the intern's Primary Care clinic session. Attendance is mandatory. Two faculty members will be assigned to 6 interns. A team approach is encouraged in which interns and faculty will meet together in a specific location on the clinic floor to facilitate patient care and learning for discussion, case analysis and presentation. A greater understanding of the nuances of patient management is sought via the modeling of patient care strategies, critical thinking and the inclusion of evidence based medicine and existing resources.
 

Optometric Clinic I                                                                              
Course Coordinator:  Julia Appel
CEC-341RA
2.0 Credits                                                       

The third-year clinical program (Optometric Clinic I, II, & III) provides the intern with a broad exposure to all facets of primary care optometry. Rotations are in the areas of primary care and in various specialty clinics.  During these rotations, the intern will have patientcare responsibilities under the supervision of clinical faculty. The rotations are designed to allow the intern increasing levels of clinical responsibility and patient care opportunities.

Third Year - Fall Semester

Ocular Disease II                                                                                       
Course Coordinator: Scott Richter
BVS-352FA    
5 Credits                                         

This course is the second in a series of three courses detailing the pathogenesis, physiologic response, clinical manifestations, treatment and rehabilitation of conditions of the body and eye in response to local and systemic pathologic and developmental processes and disorders. Emphasis in Ocular Disease II is on the conditions of the posterior segment of the eye, related systemic conditions and the glaucomas and material is presented in a fashion that includes integration of ocular and systemic medical concepts as well as medical, surgical and rehabilitative management concepts. Epidemiological data is included to allow students to differentiate between high-probability and/or high risk conditions and low probability and/or low risk conditions. Previous course work in anatomy, physiology, pathology, epidemiology, monocular sensory processing, pharmacology and systemic medicine will provide the student with the foundation for understanding the principles and practices covered in this course.

Contact Lens II                                                                                      
Course Coordinator: Kathryn Richdale
BVS-362FA
3 Credits                                                          

This course will introduce the principles of advanced contact lens fitting. The application of a variety of specialty rigid and soft lens designs will be reviewed, and selection of the appropriate lens design based on the pre-fitting data. Contact lens fitting techniques for the management of keratoconus, bifocal correction, post-refractive surgery, post-corneal transplant correction, orthokeratology, adult and pediatric aphakia, prosthetic soft and rigid lens correction will be offered. Use of state-of-the-art computer corneal mapping and other diagnostic techniques will be presented as tools to help fit and manage the abnormal cornea.

Anomalies of Visual Sensorimotor Function                                        
Course Coordinators: Audra Steiner/Ken Ciuffreda
BVS-370SA                          
6 Credits

This course will concentrate on the diagnosis and treatment of non-pathological binocular, accommodative and oculomotor conditions including strabismus and amblyopia. The course will explain the historic and current role of vision therapy within optometry, epidemiology of functional vision disorders and discuss current research. Students will become familiar and comfortable with appropriate testing, discussing findings with patients and sharing information with other professionals. The course describes neurologic adaptations to strabismus and amblyopia and remediation of these special conditions. An associated lab will familiarize students with testing and allow them to understand how to design and implement a vision therapy program.

Integrative Seminar VI                                                                            
Course Coordinator: Julia Appel
CEI-3FA                                                    
0.5 Credit

Integrative Seminar V continues to build on prior Integrative Seminar courses in which interns learn in small-group settings how to apply information gained in the professional program curriculum to patient care. The emphasis will be on developing the ability to think critically and obtaining the skills necessary for independent, life-long learning. The one hour course will take place as an extension of the intern's Primary Care clinic session for a total of 16 hours per semester. Attendance is mandatory. Two faculty members will be assigned to 6 interns. A team approach is encouraged in which interns and faculty will meet together in a specific location on the clinic floor to facilitate patient care and learning for discussion, case analysis and presentation. A greater understanding of the nuances of patient management is sought via the modeling of patient care strategies, critical thinking and the inclusion of evidence based medicine and existing resources.

Optometric Clinic II                                                                                
Course Coordinator:  Julia Appel
CEC-342FA 
3.5 Credits                                                     

The third-year clinical program (Optometric Clinic I, II, & III) provides the intern with a broad exposure to all facets of primary care optometry. Rotations are in the areas of primary care and in various specialty clinics.  During these rotations, the intern will have patient care responsibilities under the supervision of clinical faculty. The rotations are designed to allow the intern increasing levels of clinical responsibility and patient care opportunities.

Third Year: Spring Semester

Ocular Disease III                                                                                     
Course Coordinator: Pat Modica
BVS-353SA
4.5 Credits                                                            

This course is the third in a series of three courses detailing the pathogenesis, physiologic response, clinical manifestations, treatment and rehabilitation of conditions of the body and eye in response to local and systemic pathologic and developmental processes and disorders. Emphasis in Ocular Disease III is on the conditions of the neuro-ocular and neurologic systems and material is presented in a fashion that includes integration of ocular and systemic medical concepts as well as medical, surgical and rehabilitative management concepts. Epidemiological data is included to allow students to differentiate between high-probability and/or high-risk conditions and low-probability and/or low-risk conditions. Previous course work in neuro-anatomy, physiology, pathology, epidemiology, pharmacology and systemic medicine will provide the student with the foundation for understanding the principles and practices covered in this course.

Children, Vision and Learning II   
Course Coordinator: Robert Duckman
BVS-318SA
2.5 Credits

This behavioral and clinically oriented course is intended to give the third year student in the professional program an understanding of developmental processes involved in the understanding of the normal and abnormal development of visual-spatial concepts. An inclusive model of behavioral vision is presented. Clinical application of research in perceptual and cognitive development and new techniques used in infant evaluation with discussion of the practical aspects involved in examining children from birth to five years of age are presented. Models of spatial development developed by Piaget and Gesell are discussed along with the ideas of Kephart, Barsch, Getman, Trevathen, Rosner, and Corballis and Beale. Introduction to standardized visual-perceptual clinical tests and statistics involved with these are made. The relationship of the visual-perceptual cognitive skills and motor-based skills is also discussed. Review of research on the efficacy of perceptual training and communication skills in vision therapy is reviewed.


Optometric Practice in a Changing Health Care Environment
CEP-320SA
Course Coordinator: Richard Soden
2.5 Credits

Rapid changes in health care and in optometric practice make it essential that graduating students be well-versed in optometry’s role in the public health system.  The increased scope of optometric practice has made the Doctor of Optometry a significant part of the overall health care team.   As a result, students will need to understand their own interests, goals and values so they may end up in a career path that is attractive to them.  This course will provide each student with the knowledge, skills and background required for the development of a career plan.  The student will become familiar with the various modes of practice available to a recent graduate.  Key elements of health care reform, the role of optometry in the public health system and as a member of an interdisciplinary team, will be highlighted along with discussions of essential non-clinical factors (e.g. Medicare, Coding and Billing, etc.) that each graduate will be required to know regardless of their chosen career path. A key goal of the course is to encourage students to explore the various opportunities available to them within the Profession of Optometry and to prepare them for that path.

Public Health      
CEP-310SA
Course Coordinator: Mort Soroka    
2.5 Credits

This course introduces the student to major health policy issues and examines the role of government in the health care system. Much of government policy relates to the payment systems of Medicare and Medicaid and regulation. Health care reform legislation impacts on all financing programs; private and governmental. New organizational structures such as Accountable Care Organizations (ACO's), health care exchanges will impact on the delivery and quality of care.  The course introduces basic principles (such as supply and demand, quality assurance) in health care economics. The economics of health care markets and provider payment systems especially managed care and third party programs and vision plans are covered. Of special emphasis is the role of optometry in the Medicare and Medicaid program and managed care and coding in third party programs. This course prepares optometry students to analyze and debate health care policy issues. Sessions are designed to help students understand how politics, economics, professional, social and ethical values contribute to health policy development and implementation. Specific policy issues reviewed include inter-professional relations, licensure, board certification, professional standards, cost containment, equity and access to care, quality improvement, electronic medical records, complementary and alternative medicine, managed care systems, health care law, workforce and health care ethics. The course also addresses health law, health care reform, quality assurance, professional standards, clinical practice guidelines and regulation, disease management strategies, health disparities, and health literacy and emerging legislative efforts and initiatives within health care. The history of research ethics, Medical Research Oversight, Institutional Review Boards, Privacy and HIPAA are also discussed.  An objective of the course is to provide the student with a familiarity of current issues with an understanding of the policies and programs facing the profession.

Integrative Seminar VII    
CEI-3SA
Course Coordinator: Julia Appel

This course introduces the student to major health policy issues and examines the role of government in the health care system. Much of government policy relates to the payment systems of Medicare and Medicaid and regulation. Health care reform legislation impacts on all financing programs; private and governmental. New organizational structures such as Accountable Care Organizations (ACO's), health care exchanges will impact on the delivery and quality of care.  The course introduces basic principles (such as supply and demand, quality assurance) in health care economics. The economics of health care markets and provider payment systems especially managed care and third party programs and vision plans are covered. Of special emphasis is the role of optometry in the Medicare and Medicaid program and managed care and coding in third party programs. This course prepares optometry students to analyze and debate health care policy issues. Sessions are designed to help students understand how politics, economics, professional, social and ethical values contribute to health policy development and implementation. Specific policy issues reviewed include inter-professional relations, licensure, board certification, professional standards, cost containment, equity and access to care, quality improvement, electronic medical records, complementary and alternative medicine, managed care systems, health care law, workforce and health care ethics. The course also addresses health law, health care reform, quality assurance, professional standards, clinical practice guidelines and regulation, disease management strategies, health disparities, and health literacy and emerging legislative efforts and initiatives within health care. The history of research ethics, Medical Research Oversight, Institutional Review Boards, Privacy and HIPAA are also discussed.  An objective of the course is to provide the student with a familiarity of current issues with an understanding of the policies and programs facing the profession.

Integrative Seminar VII    
CEI-3SA
Course Coordinator: Julia Appel    
0.5 Credits

Integrative Seminar VII is a continuation of the prior Integrative Seminar courses where interns learn in small group settings how to apply information gained in the professional program curriculum to patient care. The emphasis will be on developing the ability to think critically and obtaining the skills necessary for independent, life long learning. The one hour course will take place as an extension of the intern’s primary care clinic session for a total of 16 hours per semester. Attendance is mandatory. Two faculty members will be assigned to six interns. A team approach is encouraged where interns and faculty will meet together in a specific location on the clinic floor to facilitate patient care and learning for discussion, case analysis and presentation. A greater understanding of the nuances of patient management is sought via the modeling of patient care strategies, critical thinking and the inclusion of evidence-based medicine and existing resources.

Optometric Clinic III     
CEC-343SA
Course Coordinator:  Julia Appel     

3.5 Credits

The third year clinical program (Optometric Clinic I, II, & III) provides the intern with a broad exposure to all facets of primary care optometry. Rotations are in the areas of primary care and in various specialty clinics.  During these rotations, the intern will have patient-care responsibilities under the supervision of clinical faculty. The rotations are designed to allow the intern increasing levels of clinical responsibility and patient-care opportunities.


FOURTH YEAR

Clinical Seminar      
CEC-4500A
Course Coordinator: Pat Modica & Shelly Mozlin 
2 Credits

Fourth year interns are required to complete one quarter of senior seminar. The seminar meets over four hours each week to provide a small group-learning environment focused on clinical case presentations derived from the participants’ clinical experience. This grand-rounds format will provide a basis for integration and critical analysis of current clinical research with the goal of increasing the participants’ understanding, use and communication of evidence-based clinical information.