Philip Kruger, OD, PhD
{job_title}
SUNY College of Optometry
33 West 42nd Street New York, NY 10036

Research Description

Ocular Aberrations for Accommodation, Emmetropization & Perception

We are examining the broad range of stimuli that control ocular accommodation. The standard view is that luminance contrast per se is the stimulus for reflex (blur-driven) accommodation, and that blur feedback is an essential part of the accommodative process.  Our findings disagree with this conventional view, and suggest that the effects of the chromatic aberration of the eye, and the angle of incidence of light at the retina, provide directional information that specifies the sign of defocus of the eye (myopic or hyperopic). High-speed infrared optometry is used to monitor accommodation continuously while a variety of stimuli (including dioptric and non-dioptric depth cues) are presented in a Badal optometer under computer control.  A principal goal is to better understand the chromatic and achromatic directional stimuli for reflex accommodation, which result from the refraction and chromatic dispersion of the light entering the eye.  Measurements of the Stiles-Crawford effect and wavefront aberrations of the eye are used to create images that simulate defocus behind and in front of the retina, and the simulations are used to drive accommodation. The approach assumes that the optical information that controls accommodation also controls the process of emmetropization (coordinated growth and development of the optical components of the eye). Our findings disagree with the standard view of aberrations as imperfections or noise that must be removed from the retinal image. Instead aberrations like defocus and chromatic aberration provide information for depth perception, accommodation and emmetropization.

Education

State University of New York (Vision Science), PhD, 1984

State University of New York (Vision Science, Vision Development), MS, 1974

University of Houston, Texas. (Optometry), OD, 1970

Optometric Center of New York, Residency, 1969

London Refraction Hospital, England, Contact Lenses Residency, 1968,

Technikon, South Africa (Optometry), Dip. Optom, 1967

Dissertation

"Stimuli for Accommodation: Size, Blur, and Chromatic Aberration"

  PhD Dissertation, SUNY, 1984

Professional Experience and Employment

  • 1970-72: Private Pediatric Optometric Practice, South Africa

  • 1970-72: Lecturer, School of Optometry, South Africa

  • 1970-72: Developed Curriculum in Vision Development and Vision Therapy, School of Optometry, South Africa

  • 1970-72: Consultant to Bellavista School for Children with Learning Disabilities, Johannesburg, South Africa, Prinshof School for Cerebral Palsied Children, and School for the Blind and Visually Handicapped, Pretoria, South Africa

  • 1972-77: Clinical Instructor, Vision Therapy Clinic, SUNY College of Optometry

  • 1972-77: Laboratory Instructor, Specification of Stimuli, Ocular Motility, Monocular Sensory Aspects of Vision, Optics of the Eye, SUNY College of Optometry

  • 1974-77: Clinical Instructor, Methods of Optometry, SUNY, College of Optometry

  • 1977-78: Assistant Clinical Professor, SUNY College of Optometry

  • 1978-84: Assistant Professor, SUNY College of Optometry

  • 1985-88: Associate Professor, SUNY  College of Optometry

  • 1989–11: Professor, State University of New York, College of Optometry

Courses

  • 1970–72:
    Psychology of Vision – School of Optometry, South Africa
    Vision Development
    Vision Therapy
    Graphical and Analytical Analysis of clinical data

  • 1972–76:
    Specification of Stimuli Lab – State University of New York
    Ocular Motility Laboratory
    Monocular Sensory Aspects of Vision Lab
    Optics of the Eye Laboratory

  • 1974–75: Optometric Methods

  • 1977: Vision Therapy Clinic

  • 1979: Physiological Optics I Optics of the Eye

  • 1981–82: Geometric Optics Laboratory

  • 1983: Physiological Optics I Laboratory

  • 1984–90: Lectures on Accommodation Vision Training Residency

  • 1984: Binocular Vision Lectures Summer Curriculum

  • 1984: Physiological Optics II Monocular Sensory Laboratory

  • 1985–08: Visual Optics 1205 Lecture & Laboratory

  • 1986–11: Graduate Seminar G135 Optics of the Eye

  • 1997–06: Graduate Seminar G313 Stiles-Crawford Effect

  • 2008–11: Proseminar in Vision Science  Imaging, Aberrations & Adaptive Optics

  • 2008–11: Integrated Optics VRF 130F    Visual Optics

Selected Publications

Aggarwala K.R., Mathews S., Kruger E.S. and Kruger P.B. (1995) Spectral bandwidth and ocular accommodation. Journal of the Optical Society of America,12, 450–455.

Kruger, P.B., Mathews S., Katz M., Aggarwala K.R. and Nowbotsing S. (1997) Accommodation without feedback suggests directional signals specify ocular focus. Vision Research, 37, 2511-26.

Lee, J.H., Stark, L.R., Cohen, S. and Kruger, P.B. (1999) Accommodation to static chromatic simulations of blurred retinal images. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 19, 223-235.

Kruger, P.B., Lopez-Gil, N. and Stark L.R. (2001). Accommodation and the Stiles-Crawford effect: Case study and theoretical aspects Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 21, 338-350.

Rucker, F.R. and Kruger, P.B. (2001). Isolated short-wavelength sensitive cones can mediate a reflex accommodation response. Vision Research, 41, 911-922.

Stark, L.R., Lee, R.S., Kruger, P.B., Rucker, F.J. & Fan, H.Y. (2002). Accommodation to simulations of defocus and chromatic aberration in the presence of chromatic misalignment. Vision Research, 42, 1485-1498.

Rucker, F.J. and Kruger, P.B. (2004) The role of short-wavelength sensitive cones and chromatic aberration in the response to stationary and step accommodation stimuli. Vision Research, 44, 197-208.

Rucker, F.J. and Kruger, P.B. (2004) Accommodation responses to stimuli in cone contrast space. Vision Research, 44, 2931-2944.

Kruger, P.B., Stark, L.R. and Nguyen, H-N. (2004) Small foveal targets for studies of accommodation and the Stiles–Crawford effect. Vision Research, 44, 2757-2767.

Kruger, P.B., Rucker, F.J., Hu, C., Rutman, H., Schmidt, N.W. and Roditis, V. (2005) Accommodation with and without short-wavelength-sensitive cones and chromatic aberration, Vision Research, 45, 1265-1274.

Rucker, F.J. and Kruger, P.B. (2006) Cone contributions to signals for accommodation and the relationship to refractive error. Vision Research, 46, 3079–3089.

Chen, L., Kruger, P.B., Hofer, H., Singer, B. and Williams, D.R. (2006) Accommodation with higher-order monochromatic aberrations corrected with adaptive optics. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 23, 1-8.

López-Gil, N., Rucker, F.J., Stark, L.R., Badar, M., Borgovan, T., Burke, S. & Kruger, P. B. (2007) Effect of third-order aberrations on dynamic accommodation, Vision Research, 47, 755–765.

Stark, L. R., Kruger, P. B., Rucker, F. J., Swanson, W. H., Schmidt, N., Hardy, C., Rutman, H., Borgovan, T., Burke, S., Badar, M. & Shah, R. (2009). Potential signal to accommodation from the Stiles–Crawford effect and ocular monochromatic aberrations. Journal of Modern Optics, 56, 20, 2203-2216.

Kruger, P. B. (2009). Aberrations of the Eye - Crude Flaws or Ecological Design? Journal of Optometry, 2, 4,162-164.

Publications

1.Kruger, P.B.  (1972) Vision development – the role of Optometry. South African Optometrist, 31, 29–33.

2. Berman, M.S. and Kruger, P.B.  (1972) A study to determine the relationship between motor ability and achievement in children. Journal of Optometric Vision Therapy, 3, 6–19.

3.  Kruger, P.B.  (1975) Luminance changes of the fundus reflex. American Journal of Optometry & Physiological Optics, 52, 847–861.

4.  Kruger, P.B. (1977) Changes in fundus reflex luminance with increased cognitive processing. American Journal of Optometry & Physiological Optics, 54, 445–451.

5.  Kruger, P.B.  (1977) The role of accommodation in increasing the luminance of the fundus reflex during cognitive processing. Journal of the American Optometric Association, 48, 1493–1496.

6.  Kruger, P.B. (1978) The effect of accommodative changes on the brightness of the fundus reflex. Journal of the American Optometric Association, 49, 47–49.

7.  Kruger, P.B.  Brightness changes during book retinoscopy. (1979) American Journal of Optometry & Physiological Optics, 54, 673–677.

8.  Kruger, P.B.  (1979) Infrared recording retinoscope for monitoring accommodation. American Journal of Optometry & Physiological Optics,56, 116–123.

9.  Kruger, P.B.  (1980) The effect of cognitive demand on accommodation. American Journal of Optometry & Physiological Optics,57, 440–445.

10. Cooper, J., Ciuffreda, K.J. and Kruger, P.B. (1982) Stimulus and response AC/A ratios in intermittent exotropia of the divergence–excess type. British Journal of Ophthalmology,66, 398–404.

11. Schnider, C.M., Ciuffreda, K.J., Cooper, J. and Kruger, P.B. (1984) Accommodation dynamics in divergence excess exotropia. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 25, 414–418. 

12. Kruger, P.B. and Pola, J. (1985) Changing target size is a stimulus for accommodation. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 2, 1832–1835.

13. Kruger, P.B. and Pola, J. (1986) Stimuli for accommodation: blur, chromatic aberration and size. Vision Research,26, 957–971.

14. Kruger, P.B. and Pola, J. (1987) Dioptric and non–dioptric stimuli for accommodation: target size alone and with blur and chromatic aberration. Vision Research, 27, 555–567.

15. Ciuffreda, K.J. and Kruger, P.B. (1988) Dynamics of human voluntary accommodation. American Journal of Optometry & Physiological Optics, 65, 365–370.

16. Cooper, J., Kruger, P.B. and Panariello G.F. (1988) The pathognomonic pattern of accommodative fatigue in Myasthenia Gravis. Binocular Vision,3, 141–148.

17. Mc Lin Jr., L.N., Schor, C.M. and Kruger, P.B. (1988) Changing size (looming) as a stimulus to accommodation and vergence. Vision Research, 28, 883–898.

18. Kruger, P.B. and Pola, J. (1989) Accommodation to size and blur changing in counterphase. Optometry and Vision Science, 66, 455–458.

19. Kruger P.B., Mathews S., Aggarwala K.R. and Sanchez N. (1993) Chromatic aberration and ocular focus: Fincham revisited. Vision Research,33, 1397–1411.

20. Mathews S. and Kruger P.B. (1994) Spatiotemporal transfer function of human accommodation. Vision Research,34, 1965–1980.

21. Stone D., Mathews S., and Kruger P.B. (1993) Accommodation and chromatic aberration: effect of spatial frequency. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics, 13, 244–252.

22. Kruger P.B., Nowbotsing S. Aggarwala K. and Mathews S. (1995) Small amounts of chromatic aberration stimulate reflex accommodation. Optometry and Vision Science, 72, 656–666.

23. Kruger P.B., Mathews S., Aggarwala K.R., Yager D. and Kruger E.S. (1995) Accommodation responds to changing contrast of long, middle and short spectral wavebands of the retinal image. Vision Research, 35, 2415–2429.

24. Aggarwala K.R., Mathews S., Kruger E.S. and Kruger P.B. (1995) Spectral bandwidth and ocular accommodation. Journal of the Optical Society of America,12, 450–455.

25. Aggarwala K.R., Nowbotsing S. and Kruger P.B. (1995) Accommodation to monochromatic and white-light targets. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 36, 2695-2705.

26. Kruger, P.B., Mathews S. and Aggarwala K.R. (1997) Accommodation to stationary and moving targets, Optometry and Vision Science  74, 505-10.

27. Kruger P.B., Aggarwala K.R., Mathews S., Stark L., Kruger E.S., Lee J., and Cohen S. (1997) Spectral bandwidth and ocular accommodation. IS&T/OSA Optics and Imaging in the Information Age  311-314.

28. Kruger, P.B., Mathews S., Katz M., Aggarwala K.R. and Nowbotsing S. (1997) Accommodation without feedback suggests directional signals specify ocular focus. Vision Research, 37, 2511-26.

29. Katz, M. and Kruger P.B. (1998) The Human Eye as an Optical System, In Clinical Ophthalmology, Editors: Tasman, W. and Jaeger E.A., Chapter 33, Volume I, Lippincott-Raven.

30. Lee, J.H., Stark, L.R., Cohen, S. and Kruger, P.B. (1999) Accommodation to static chromatic simulations of blurred retinal images. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 19, 223-235.

31. Aggarwala, K.R., Stark, L.R. & Kruger, P.B. (1999) Chromatic aberration stimulates accommodation in two color directions. European Optical Society Topical Meetings Digest Series:23, 61-62.

32. Kruger, P.B., Mathews, S., Aggarwala, K.R., Stark, L.R., Bean, S., Lee, J.H., and Cohen, S. (2000) Chromatic stimulus for accommodation to stationary and moving targets. In: Franzen, O., Richter, H. and Stark, L. (Eds), Accommodation and Vergence  Mechanisms in the Visual System.  Birkhauser Verlag.

33. Cooper, J., Pollack, G.J., Ciuffreda, K.J., Kruger, P.B. and Feldman, J. (2000) Accommodative and vergence findings in ocular myasthenia: a case analysis. Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology., 20, 5-11.

34. Kruger, P.B., Lopez-Gil, N. and Stark L.R. (2001). Accommodation and the Stiles-Crawford effect: Case study and theoretical aspects Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 21, 338-350.

35. Rucker, F.R. and Kruger, P.B. (2001). Isolated short-wavelength sensitive cones can mediate a reflex accommodation response. Vision Research, 41, 911-922.

36. Stark, L.R., Lee, R.S., Kruger, P.B., Rucker, F.J. & Fan, H.Y. (2002) Accommodation to simulations of defocus and chromatic aberration in the presence of chromatic misalignment. Vision Research, 42, 1485-1498.

37. Kruger, P. B., Rucker, F. J., & Stark, L. R. (2003). Defocus cues and accommodation [Abstract].  Journal of Vision, 3(12), 20a.

38. Rucker, F.J. and Kruger, P.B. (2004) The role of short-wavelength sensitive cones and chromatic aberration in the response to stationary and step accommodation stimuli. Vision Research, 44, 197-208.

39. Rucker, F.J. and Kruger, P.B. (2004) Accommodation responses to stimuli in cone contrast space. Vision Research, 44, 2931-2944.

40. Kruger, P.B., Stark, L.R. and Nguyen, H-N. (2004) Small foveal targets for studies of accommodation and the Stiles–Crawford effect. Vision Research, 44, 2757-2767.

41. Stark, L.R., Kruger, P.B. and Atchison, D. A. (2002). Model of the signed cue to defocus provided by a decentered Stiles-Crawford function. Optometry and Vision Science, 79(12s), 178.

42. Kruger, P.B., Rucker, F.J., Hu, C., Rutman, H., Schmidt, N.W. and Roditis, V. (2005) Accommodation with and without short-wavelength-sensitive cones and chromatic aberration, Vision Research,45, 1265-1274.

43. Rucker, F.J. and Kruger, P.B. (2006) Cone contributions to signals for accommodation and the relationship to refractive error. Vision Research, 46, 3079–3089.

44. Chen, L., Kruger, P.B., Hofer, H., Singer, B. and Williams, D.R. (2006) Accommodation with higher-order monochromatic aberrations corrected with adaptive optics. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 23, 1-8.

45. López-Gil, N., Rucker, F.J., Stark, L.R., Badar, M., Borgovan, T., Burke, S. & Kruger, P. B. (2007) Effect of third-order aberrations on dynamic accommodation, Vision Research, 47, 755–765.

46. Katz, M. and Kruger P.B. (2009). The Human Eye as an Optical System, In Clinical Ophthalmology, Editors: Tasman, W. and Jaeger E.A., Chapter 33, Volume I, Lippincott-Raven.

47. Stark, L. R., Kruger, P. B., Rucker, F. J., Swanson, W. H., Schmidt, N., Hardy, C., Rutman, H., Borgovan, T., Burke, S., Badar, M. & Shah, R. (2009). Potential signal to accommodation from the Stiles–Crawford effect and ocular monochromatic aberrations. Journal of Modern Optics, 56, 20, 2203-2216.

48. Kruger, P. B. (2009). Aberrations of the Eye – Crude Flaws or Ecological Design? Journal of Optometry, 2, 4,162-164.

 

Presentations

1. Kruger P.B. (1970) Vision Development – The Role of Optometry, South African Optometric Association Seminar.

2. Kruger P.B. (1971) Vision Therapy, Southern Transvaal Branch, South African Optometric Association Seminar.

3. Kruger P.B. (1971) Diagnosis of Children with Learning Disabilities. Northern Transvaal Branch, South African Optometric Association Seminar.

4. Kruger P.B. (1972) Vision Therapy and Contact Lenses. Contact Lens Society of South Africa.

5. Kruger P.B. (1972) Vision Evaluation Symposium – Multi–disciplinary Treatment of Children with Learning Disabilities, Durban, South Africa.

6. Kruger P.B. (1974) Luminance Changes of the Fundus Reflex. Am. Acad. of Optometry Meeting, Miami, Florida, December.

7. Kruger P.B. (1976) Changes in the Luminance of the Fundus Reflex During Cognitive Processing.  Am. Acad. of Optom. Meeting, Portland, Oregon, December.

8. Kruger P.B. (1977) Brightness Changes During Book Retinoscopy. Am. Acad. of Optom. Meeting, Birmingham, Alabama, December.

9. Kruger P.B. (1978) Infrared Recording Retinoscope for Monitoring Accommodation Am. Acad. of Optom. Meeting, Boston, Mass., December.

10. Ciuffreda K.J. and Kruger P.B. (1979) Human Voluntary Accommodation Dynamics.  Am. Acad. of Optom. Meeting, Anaheim, Calif., December.

11. Ciuffreda K.J. and Kruger P.B. (1980) Dynamics of Human Voluntary Accommodation. ARVO Meeting, Sarasota, Florida, May.

12. Cooper J., Ciuffreda K.J. and Kruger P.B. (1980) AC/A Ratios in Intermittent Exotropia of the Divergence–excess Type.  Am. Acad. of Optom. Meeting, Chicago, Illinois, December.

13. Cooper J. Ciuffreda K.J. and Kruger P.B. (1981) AC/A Ratios in Intermittent Exotropia of the Divergence–excess Type.  ARVO Meeting, Sarasota, Fla., May.

14. Schnider C.M., Ciuffreda K.J., Cooper J. and Kruger P.B. (1983) Accommodation Dynamics in Divergence–excess Exotropia.  Am. Acad. of Optom. Meeting, Houston, Texas, December.

15. Kruger P.B. and Pola J. (1983) Stimuli for Accommodation: Blur, Perceived Distance and Chromatic Aberration. ARVO Meeting, Sarasota, Fla., May.

16. Kruger P.B. (1983) Does Target Size Affect Accommodation? Summer Research Colloquium Series, SUNY College of Optometry, July.

17. Kruger P.B. and Pola J. (1983) Size, Blur, and Chromatic Aberration are Stimuli for Accommodation.  Am. Acad. of Optom. Meeting, Houston, Texas, Dec.

18. Kruger P.B. and Pola J. (1984) Size is an Effective Stimulus for Accommodation.  ARVO meeting, Sarasota, Florida, May.

19. Cooper J., Ciuffreda K.J. and Kruger P.B. (1984) True vs Simulated Divergence Excess Exotropia: Accommodation Dynamics. ARVO Meeting, Sarasota, Florida, May.

20. Kruger P.B. (1984) The Stimuli for Accommodation Include Size, Blur, and Chromatic Aberration. Invited presentation, New York Academy of Optometry, N.Y. May.

21. Kruger P.B. (1984) Stimuli for Accommodation. Invited presentation, Rand Afrikaans University, Johannesburg, South Africa, December.

22. Kruger P.B. and Pola J. (1985) Stimuli for Accommodation: Size and Blur in Counterphase. ARVO Meeting, Sarasota, Florida, May.

23. Kruger P.B. and Pola J. (1985) What Drives Accommodation? Changing Size and Blur in Opposition. Am. Acad. of Optom. Meeting, Atlanta, Georgia, December.

24. Kruger P.B. (1986) New Views on Accommodation: Dioptric and Non–dioptric Cues.  Invited presentation, N.Y. Academy of Optometry, N.Y. January.

25. Kruger P.B. and Pola J. (1986) Chromatic Cues for Accommodation. Am. Acad. of Optom. Meeting, Toronto, Canada.

26. Kruger P.B. Mathews S. and Fox C.R. (1987) Chromatic Cues for Accommodation. ARVO Meeting, Sarasota, Florida, May.

27. McLin L.N., Schor C.M. and Kruger P.B. (1987) Volitional and Size Induced Changes in Accommodation and Convergence. ARVO Meeting, Sarasota, Florida, May.

28. Mathews S. and Kruger P.B. (1987) Spatio–temporal Transfer Function of Human Accommodation.  Am. Acad. Of Optom. Meeting, Denver, Colorado, December.

29. Mathews S. and Kruger P.B. (1988) Spatio–temporal Transfer Function of Human Accommodation. ARVO Meeting, Sarasota, Florida, May.

30. Mathews S. and Kruger P.B. (1988) The Shape of the Accommodative Response Function at Low Contrast. Am. Acad. of Optom. Meeting, Columbus, Ohio, December.

31. Kruger P.B., Stevens D. and Mathews S. (1989) Accommodation and Chromatic Aberration: Effect of Spatial Frequency. ARVO Meeting, Sarasota, Florida, May.

32. Mathews S. and Kruger P.B. (1989) Accommodation to Low Contrast Stimuli. ARVO Meeting, Sarasota, Florida, May.

33. Kruger P.B., Stevens D. and Mathews S. (1989) Accommodation and Chromatic Aberration: Effect of Spatial Frequency. Optical Society of America Meeting, Orlando, Florida, October.

34. Kruger P.B., Stevens D. and Mathews S. (1989) Accommodation and Chromatic Aberration: Effect of Spatial Frequency. Am. Acad. of Optom. Meeting, New Orleans, La., December.

35. Mathews S. and Kruger P.B. (1989) Accommodation to Isoluminant Stimuli. Am. Acad. of Optom. Meeting, New Orleans, La., December.

36. Stone D,. Kruger P.B. and Mathews S. (1990) Contrast Sensitivity with Chromatic Aberration Doubled, Neutralized, and Reversed. ARVO Meeting, Sarasota, Florida, May.

37. Mathews S. and Kruger P.B. (1990) Accommodation to Isoluminant Stimuli. ARVO Meeting, Sarasota, Florida, May.

38. Mathews S. and Kruger P.B. (1990) Accommodation and the Third Harmonic.  Am. Acad. of Optom. Meeting, Nashville, Tn., December.

39. Kruger P.B., Mathews S., Sanchez N. and Aggarwala K.R. (1991) Chromatic Aberration and Focus: Fincham Revisited.  ARVO Meeting, Sarasota, May.

40. Mathews S. and Kruger P.B. (1991) Accommodation and the Third Harmonic. ARVO Meeting, Sarasota, Florida, May.

41. Mathews S., Kapoor N., Yager D. and Kruger P.B. (1992) Contrast Decrement Sensitivity Across Spatial Frequency. ARVO Meeting, Sarasota, Florida, May.

42. Kruger P.B., Mathews S., Aggarwala K.R. and Nowbotsing S. (1992) Open–loop Accommodation: Chromatic and Achromatic Mechanisms ARVO Meeting, Sarasota, Florida, May.

43. Kruger P.B., Mathews S., Aggarwala K.R. and Nowbotsing S. (1992) Chromatic and Achromatic Mechanisms for Accommodation.  Am. Acad. of Optom. Meeting, Orlando, Fl., December.

44. Mathews S. and Kruger P.B. (1992) Contrast Decrement Sensitivity Across Spatial Frequency. Am. Acad. of Optom. Meeting, Orlando, Fl., December.

45. Kruger P.B., Nowbotsing S., Aggarwala K.R. and Mathews S. (1993) Small Amounts of Chromatic Aberration Influence Dynamic Accommodation. ARVO Meeting, Sarasota, Florida, May.

46. Mathews S. and Kruger P.B. (1993) Accommodative Fluctuations and Contrast Decrement Sensitivity. ARVO Meeting, Sarasota, Florida, May.

47. Aggarwala K.R., Nowbotsing S., Mathews S. and Kruger P.B. (1993) Dynamic Accommodation is Impaired in Narrow Band Light ARVO Meeting, Sarasota, Florida, May.

48. Kruger P.B., Mathews S., Kruger E. and Aggarwala K.R. (1994) Accommodation Responds to Changing Contrast of the Red, Green and Blue Components of the Retinal Image. ARVO Meeting, Sarasota, Florida, May.

49. Aggarwala K.R., Kruger P.B., Mathews S., Park J.H. and Kruger E.S. (1994) Spectral Bandwidth and Accommodative Function. ARVO Meeting, Sarasota, Florida, May.

50. Mathews S., Kruger P.B., Kapoor N. and Yager D. (1994) Criterion–free Dynamic Depth of Focus as a Function of Chromatic Aberration. ARVO Meeting, Sarasota, Florida, May.

51. Mathews S., Kruger P.B., Kapoor N. and Yager D. (1994) Criterion–free Dynamic Depth of Focus as a Function of Chromatic Aberration. Am. Acad. of Optom. Meeting, San Diego, Ca., December.

52. Kruger P.B., Mathews S. and Aggarwala K.R. (1995) Accommodation and Chromatic Aberration: Stationary and Moving Targets. ARVO Meeting, Sarasota, Florida, May.

53. Aggarwala K.R., Stark L.S., Jackson K. and Kruger P.B. (1995) Control of Visual Accommodation by Opponent Color Mechanisms.  Am. Acad. of Optom. Meeting, New Orleans, La., December.

54. Kruger P.B. (1996) Chromatic Stimulus for Accommodation to Stationary and Moving Targets. First International Symposium on Accommodation/Vergence in the Visual System, Stockholm, Sweden, September.  Invited Presentation.

55. Kruger P.B. (1996) Spectral Bandwidth and Ocular Accommodation. Optical Society of America Meeting, Rochester, N.Y. Oct. 1996.  Invited Presentation.

56. Stark L.S., Kruger P.B. and Park M. (1996) Accommodation following Adaptation to Sine Gratings: Effect of Target Contrast. Am. Acad. of Optom. Meeting, Orlando, Florida, December.

57. Kruger P.B., Stark L.S., Orlov E. and Leo C-K. (1997) Accommodation to Perceived Motion in Depth. ARVO Meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Fla., May.

58. Kruger P.B., Lee J., Stark L.S. and Cohen S.(1997) Accommodation to Simulations of Static Blurred Retinal Images.  Am. Acad. Optom. Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, December.

59. Stark L.S., Orloff E., Leo C-K., Jackson K. and Kruger P.B. (1998) Accommodation to Looming: Changing Angular Size versus Motion in Depth. ARVO Meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Fla., May.

60. Rucker F., Khazanova N., Gleizer S. and Kruger P.B. (1998) Short-wavelength-sensitive-cones & ocular accommodation. ARVO Meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Fla., May.

61. Cooper J., Pollack G., Ciuffreda K., Kruger P.B., Feldman J., and Stark L. (1998) Accommodative vergence findings in Myasthenia Gravis. Am. Acad. Optom. Meeting, San Francisco, California, December.

62. Kruger P.B., Lopez-Gil N. and Stark L.R. (1999). Accommodation and the Stiles Crawford effect. ARVO Meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Fla., May.

63. Stark L.R., Lee R.S., Kruger P.B., Rucker F.J. and Fan H.Y. (1999) Effect of transverse colour on accommodation to static chromatic simulations of defocus & longitudinal chromatic aberration. ARVO Meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Fla., May.

64. Kruger P.B. (1999) Ocular accommodation to the vergence of light. SUNY SIVR Symposium, Invited presentation, March.

65. Kruger P.B. (1999) Accommodation to the vergence of light. New England College of Optometry, Research lecture series, Invited presentation, June.

66. Aggarwala K.R., Stark L.R. and Kruger P.B. (1999) Chromatic aberration stimulates accommodation in two color directions. EOS Topical meeting on Physiological Optics, Warsaw, Poland, September 23-25.

67. Kruger, P.B., Stark, L.R. & Hu, A.C. (2000) Accommodation to blurred vertical edges viewed through pinholes on the left or right side of the pupil. ARVO Meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Fla., May.

68. Kruger, P.B., Stark, L.R. and Nguyen, H-N. (2001) Accommodation to small centrally-fixated foveal targets. ARVO Meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Fla., May.

69. Rucker, F.J. & Kruger, P.B. (2001) The role of short-wavelength sensitive cones and chromatic aberration to step accommodation stimuli. ARVO Meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Fla., May.

70. Kruger, P.B. (2001) “How does the eye know which way to go? Signed signals for reflex accommodation. Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y. Invited presentation, July.

71. Chen, L., Kruger P. B. and Williams, D.R. (2002) Accommodation without higher order monochromatic aberrations, ARVO Meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Fla., May.

72. Rucker F. J. and Kruger P. B. (2002) Accommodation responses to stimuli in cone contrast space. ARVO Meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Fla., May.

73. Stark, L.R. & Kruger, P.B. (2002). Empirical investigation of reflex, proximal, and voluntary components of the accommodative response. Am. Acad. of Optom. Meeting, San Diego, Ca., December.OVS, 79 (12S): 172.

74. Stark, L.R., Kruger, P.B. and Atchison, D. A. (2002). Model of the signed cue to defocus provided by a decentered Stiles-Crawford function. Am. Acad. of Optom. Meeting, San Diego, Ca., December. OVS, 79 (12S): 178.

75. Kruger, P.B., Rucker, F.J. and Stark, L.R. (2003). Defocus cues and accommodation. Invited presentation. Fall Vision Meeting, Optical Society of America, Tucson, Arizona, October.

76. Kruger, P.B., Rucker, F.J., Hu, C., Rutman, H., Schmidt, N.W. and Roditis, V. (2004) Accommodation with and without S-cones and chromatic aberration. ARVO meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, May.

77. Rucker, F.J. & Kruger, P.B. (2004) Cone contributions to reflex accommodation and refractive error. ARVO meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, May.

78.  Kruger, P.B. (2004). Investigaciones sobre acomodacion. Invited presentation. La visión en el siglo XXI. Universidad Internacional del Mar, Águilas, Spain. September 13-17.

79.  López-Gil, N., Rucker, F., Stark,L.R., Badar, M., Borgovan, T., Burke, S., and Kruger, P.B. (2004). Effect of third-order aberrations on dynamic accommodation. 2nd European Optical Society Topical Meeting on Physiological Optics, Granada, Spain, September 20-23.

80. Stark, L. R., Hartley, J., & Kruger, P.B. (2005). Extrapolation of Zernike coefficients on the assumption of circular, symmetrically dilating pupils. ARVO meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, May.

81. Kruger, P.B., Rutman, H., Rucker, F.R., & Swanson, W.H. (2005). Accommodation does not respond to change in the ratio of L-/M-cone excitations. ARVO meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, May.

82. Stark, L.R., Kruger, P.B., Rucker, F.J., Schmidt, N., Hu, C., Rutman, H., Borgovan, T., Burke, S., Badar, M., Shah, R. (2007). Potential signal to accommodation from the Stiles-Crawford effect and ocular monochromatic aberrations available in the shape of the point spread function. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 48, E-5630. ARVO meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, May.

83. Cho, J., Kruger, P.B., Stark, L.R., Borgovan, T., Burke, S., Badar, M., Shah, R. (2007). Accommodation to blurred edges viewed through off-center pinhole pupils. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 48, E-970. ARVO meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, May.

84. Kruger, P.B., Stark, Swanson, W.H., Rucker, F.J., Schmidt, N., Rutman, H., Hu, C., Borgovan, T., Burke, S., Shah, R. (2007). The Stiles-Crawford function for small foveal targets. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 48, E-971. ARVO meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, May.

85. Kruger, P.B. (2008). Chromatic aberration. Invited presentation. 7th Aegean Summer School, Crete, Greece, August 29.

86. Kruger, P.B. (2008). The Accommodation System. Invited presentation. 7th Aegean Summer School, Crete, Greece, August 30.

87. Kruger, P.B., Wang, Y., Li, J., Lin, P. & Stark, L.R. (2008). Accommodation and chromatic aberration: effect of pupil size and higher-order aberrations. 4th European meeting on Visual & Physiological Optics, Crete, Greece, August 31.

88. Kruger, P.B. (2008). Fluctuations in Accommodation. Invited presentation. 4th European meeting on Visual & Physiological Optics, Crete, Greece, August 31.

89. Wang, Y., Kruger, P.B., Li, J., Lin., P. & Stark., L.R. (2008). Individual differences in accommodation to wavefront vergence and chromatic aberration: color normal and deutan observers. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 49, E-4026. ARVO meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, May.

90. Gambra, E., Yuan, J., Wang, Y., Marcos, S. & Kruger, P.B. (2009). Dynamic Accommodation with high order aberrations blurred simulated targets. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 50, E-4293. ARVO meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, May.

 

Peer-Review Committees

  • Visual Sciences B Study Section of NIH, Special Study Section Meeting and Site Visit, Columbia University, New York, July 17, 1987

  • Visual Sciences B Study Section of NIH, Ad Hoc Reviewer, February 21, 1990

  • Visual Sciences B Study Section of NIH, Ad Hoc Reviewer, April 24, 2000

Research Grants and Awards

  • Optometric Extension Program Foundation Grants, 1975-2976, 1977-1978, 1979–1980, 1980-1982.

  • Optometric Center of New York Foundation Grants, 1977-1978, 1979-1981, 1982-1983, 19841985.

  • American Optometric Foundation Grants, 1973-75, 1978-1979.

  • National Eye Institute of NIH, Small Grant Award, RO3 EYO4217, $9,637, 1982-1983.

  • National Eye Institute of NIH, New Investigator Award, R23 EYO5901, $107,000, 1985-1988.

  • SUNY Research Foundation Matching Funds Award, $12,250, 1985-1986.

  • American Optometric Foundation Award, $4,000, 1986-1987.

  • SUNY Research Foundation Matching Funds Award, $25,100, 1987.

  • National Eye Institute of NIH. Instrumentation Grant, CO6 EYO7494, $25,100, 1987-1988.

  • National Eye Institute of NIH. Stimuli for Accommodation, RO1 EYO5901, $485,500, 1989-1994.

  • SUNY Research Foundation Equipment Challenge Grant, $23,280, 1990-1992.

  • National Eye Institute of NIH. Instrumentation Program, S15 EYO8953, $5000, 1990-1991.

  • Biomedical Research Support Grant, NIH, $2,338, 1990-1991.

  • Schnurmacher Institute for Vision Research, SUNY $5,000, 1991-1992.

  • National Eye Institute of NIH. Chromatic Cues for Ocular Accommodation. 32 EYO640301A1, $93,600, 1992-95.

  • Schnurmacher Institute for Vision Research, SUNY $3,500, 1992-1993.

  • Schnurmacher Institute for Vision Research, SUNY $3,000, 1993-1994.

  • Distinguished Achievement Award, New York State Optometric Association, 1994.

  • Schnurmacher Institute for Vision Research, SUNY $3,500, 1994-1995.

  • Schnurmacher Institute for Vision Research, SUNY SIVR Postdoctoral Associate Award to Dr Lawrence Stark.  $30,000 per year, 1995–1997.

  • Schnurmacher Institute for Vision Research, SUNY.  $4,723, 1995-1996.

  • Schnurmacher Institute for Vision Research, SUNY $5,650, 1996-1997.

  • National Eye Institute of NIH. Stimuli for Accommodation. RO1 EYO5901, $211,854, 1997-2000.

  • Schnurmacher Institute for Vision Research, SUNY  $1,500, 1997-1998.

  • National Eye Institute of NIH. Stimuli for Accommodation, RO1 EYO5901-12 to 14, $273,000 per year, 2002-2005.

  • Chancellor’s Award for Excellence in Research, SUNY 2003.

  • Chancellor’s Award for Excellence in Scholarship and Creative Activities, SUNY 2004.

Graduate Students

Steven Mathews
Advisor, PhD Dissertation Sponsor

Cathryn Neary 
PhD Dissertation Committee Member

David Xu
Specialty Area Examination Member
PhD Dissertation Committee Member

Debra Stone  
Advisor and Masters Paper Sponsor

John Mordi   
Specialty Area Examination Member

Zengyu Xu   
Advisor

Nivian Sanchez   
Advisor and Masters Paper Sponsor

Abbas Khorassani
Specialty Area Examination Member
PhD Dissertation Committee Member

Dajin Yu 
Specialty Area Examination Member
Dissertation Committee Member

Sujata Nowbotsing 
Advisor and Master's Paper Sponsor

Karan Aggarwala 
Advisor, PhD Dissertation Sponsor

Jeanette Meng  
Specialty Area Examination Member
Dissertation Committee Member

Uche Anicho
Dissertation Committee Member

Frances Rucker   
Advisor and Master’s Paper Sponsor
PhD Dissertation Sponsor
Mentor K23 grant

Matt Esperon  
Advisor, Master’s paper Sponsor

Vasilios Roditis  
Advisor, Master’s paper Sponsor

Qiang Yin    
Advisor, Master’s paper Sponsor

Kathy Aquilante
Specialty Area Examination Member
PhD Dissertation Committee Member

Sini George 
Specialty Area Examination Member
PhD Dissertation Committee Member

Hadassa Rutman    
Advisor and Master’s Paper Sponsor

Jonathan Cho     
Advisor and Master’s Paper Sponsor

Angela Chen    
Advisor and Master’s Paper Sponsor

James Li   
Advisor and Master’s Paper Sponsor

Peter Lin
Advisor and Master’s Paper Sponsor

Yinan Wang
Advisor and Master’s Paper Sponsor