David Troilo, PhD
SUNY College of Optometry
33 West 42nd Street New York, NY 10036


Research Interests

 

Regulation of Eye Growth and Refractive State

My laboratory works on the visual regulation of postnatal eye growth and the development of refractive state. The eye continues to develop from birth to maturity in such a way that as it grows in size, it undergoes adjustments of its optical components and its refractive state. These adjustments are usually coordinated so that eyes grow toward emmetropia (emmetropization). Occasionally emmetropization does not occur and the eye becomes nearsighted (myopic) or farsighted (hyperopic). We are interested in how emmetropization works and why it occasionally leads to refractive errors.

Our earlier work, and that of others, has established that imposed defocused images can influence the growth of the eye and the development of refractive errors. We are currently interested in several aspects of this experimental ocular growth regulation including the characteristics of the visual stimuli influencing eye growth, the way the stimuli are spatially and temporally integrated, how accommodation interacts with this integration. In collaboration with Dr. Jody Summers Rada (University of Oklahoma) we are also studying the biochemical basis of the ocular growth response.

We hypothesize that the development of refractive state is determined by a confluence of several interacting factors including the shape of the eye, the spatial pattern of refractive state across the retina and the temporal characteristics of visual stimuli experienced. In addition to these, there may be individual inherited differences in eye shape and peripheral refractive state as well as the area of retina involved in the integration of the visual growth signal and the gain of the eye growth controller. Such a multi-factorial system would explain why it is so difficult to predict who will become myopic and who will progress (and how to treat them effectively).

These studies have relevance to tens of millions of patients with refractive errors. Myopia is a leading cause of blindness but its control is an old and still controversial topic. We believe that our current work will help provide answers to several clinically relevant questions regarding the development and control of myopia, the association between near work and myopia and the identification of risk factors and predictors.

Education

 

State University of New York, Oswego, BA, 1980, Biology

The City College of New York, MA, 1983, Biology

City University of New York, PhD, 1989, Biology

Oxford University, Postdoc, 1989-1991, Physiology

Cornell University, Postdoc, 1991-1994, Biopsychology

Professional Positions/Positions Held

 
  • 1994-1997: Associate Professor, Department of Biomedical Science and Disease, The New England College of Optometry

  • 1995-2005: Affiliated Scientist, New England Regional Primate Research Center, Harvard Medical School

  • 1998-2003: Associate Professor with tenure, Department of Biomedical Science and Disease, The New England College of Optometry

  • 2002-2008: Director of Graduate Studies, The New England College of Optometry

  • 2003-2008: Professor, Department of Biomedical Science and Disease, The New England College of Optometry

  • 2008-Present: Professor, State University of New York, State College of Optometry

  • 2008-Present: Vice President and Dean for Academic Affairs, State University of  New York, State College of Optometry

Academic Honors and Fellowships

 
  • 1987-1988: NIMH – National Research Service Award – City University of New York

  • 1988: ARVO NEI/Welcome Travel Fellowship

  • 1989-1991: Medical Research Council (MRC) Postdoctoral Research Fellowship, Laboratory of Physiology – Oxford University

  • 1991-1994: NIMH-Multidisciplinary Training Fellowship in Developmental Psychology – Cornell University

  • 2009-Present: Fellow of the American Academy of Optometry (FAAO)

  • 2010-Present: Fellow of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (FARVO)

Professional Service

 
  • 1994-99, 2007: International Advisory Committee-Myopia International Research Foundation

  • 1999: Study Section - NIH/NIEHS-Advanced Research Cooperative in Environmental Health

  • 2002: Study Section - NIH/NEI-T32/35 Institutional Training Grants

  • 2003: NEI Executive Summary Planning Panel-Strabismus, Amblyopia and Vision Processing

  • 2003-2005: Program Planning Committee-Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology

  • 2004: Study Section - NIH/NEI - R03 Special Emphasis Panel

  • 2004: Study Section - NIH/NEI - Vis B, Central Visual Processing (ad hoc member)

  • 2004: Study Section - NIH/NEI - P30/R24 Core Grant Special Emphasis Panel

  • 2005: Review Committee - NIH/NEI - Student Loan Repayment Special Emphasis Panel

  • 2005: Study Section - NIH/NEI - Vis A, Anterior Eye Disease (ad hoc member)  

  • 2009: Co-Director, founding member, SUNY Eye Institute

  • 2010: Co-Director, Future Faculty Program, Association for Schools and Colleges of Optometry

  • 2012: Study Section - NEI - Biology of the Visual System (ad hoc member)

           Study Section - NEI Clinical Trials - Anterior Eye, Myopia, Glaucoma and Optic Nerve

  • 2013: Study Section – NEI Core and Training Special Emphasis Panel
  • 2013: Editorial Board, Vision Research

Research Support

 

Ongoing

Johnson & Johnson Vision Care 12/15/12-12/14/17
Experimental studies of contact lens designs for myopia control
Employ experimental models of eye growth and development of refractive errors to develop contact lenses for myopia control.
Role: Project Oversight

NIH R01 EY11228              
Troilo(PI)       
4/1/07-3/31/12
Accommodation and the Development of Refractive Error
The experiments proposed in this continuing project investigate the spatial and temporal integration of visual stimuli for the control of eye growth in an established primate model of emmetropization. We hypothesize that changes in eye shape affect peripheral refractions, which, in turn, may drive further changes in eye growth and axial refractive state. Additional studies are proposed to explore the relationship of central visual processing to induced changes in eye growth and refractive state.
Role on project: Principal Investigator

NIH R01 EY09391
Rada(PI)
4/1/07-3/31/12

Regulation of Scleral Growth and Remodeling in Myopia
This study examines gene changes in choroids and scleras correlated with altered ocular growth rates in an experimental model of myopia.
Role on the project: Co-investigator

Publications

 

Peer Reviewed Papers

Benavente-Perez, A., Nour, A. and Troilo, D. (2012) The Effect of Simultaneous Negative and Positive Defocus on Eye Growth and Development of Refractive State in Marmosets. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 53(10): 6479-6487.

Springer, A.D., Troilo, D., Possin, D., and Hendrickson A.E. (2011) Foveal cone density shows a rapid postnatal maturation in the marmoset monkey. Visual Neuroscience, 28:473-84.

Coletta, N.J., Marcos, S., and Troilo, D. (2010) Ocular Wavefront Aberrations in the Common Marmoset Callithrix jacchus: Effects of Age and Refractive Error. Vision Research, 50(25):2515-29. (PMID 20800078)

Ivanova, E., Hwang, G.-S., Pan, Z.H., and Troilo, D. (2010) Evaluation of AAV-Mediated Expression of Chop2-GFP in the Marmoset Retina. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 51(10): 5288-96. (PMID 20484599)

Troilo, D., Totonelly, K., Harb, E., (2009). Imposed Anisometropia Accommodation and Regulation of Refractive State. Optometry and Vision Science

Bullet Hendrickson, A., Troilo, D., Djajadi, H., Possin, D., Springer, A., (2009). Expression of Synaptic and Phototransduction Markers During Photoreceptor Development in the Marmoset Monkey Callithrix Jacchus . Journal of Comparative Neurology

Shelton, L., Troilo, D., Lerner, M., Gusev, Y., Brackett, D.J., and Rada, J.S. (2008) Microarray Analysis of Choroid/RPE Gene Expression in Marmoset Eyes Undergoing Changes in Ocular Growth and Refraction. Molecular Vision, 14:1465-1479.

Troilo, D., Quinn, N., and Baker, K. (2007) Accommodation and the Development of Experimental Myopia in Marmosets. Vision Research, 47(9):1228-1244.

Harb, E., Thorn, F., and Troilo D. (2006) Characteristics of Accommodative Behavior During Sustained Reading in Emmetropes and Myopes. Vision Research, 46(16):2581-2592.

Hendrickson, A.E., Troilo, D., Possin, D.E., and Springer A. (2006) Development of Neural Retina and Vasculature in the Marmoset Callithrix jacchus. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 497(2):270-86.

Troilo, D., Nickla, D.L., Mertz, J.R., and Rada, J.S. (2006) Change in the Synthesis Rates of Ccular Retinoic Acid and Scleral Glycosaminoglycan During Experimentally Altered Eye Growth in Marmosets. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 47(5):1768-1777.

Troilo, D.and Nickla, D.L. (2005) The Response to Visual form Deprivation Differs with Age in Marmosets. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 46(6):1873-1881.

Nickla, D.L, Sharda, V., and Troilo, D. (2005) Temporal Integration Characteristics of the Axial and Choroidal Responses to Myopic Defocus Induced by Prior form Deprivation Versus Positive Spectacle Lens Wear in Chickens. Optometry and Vision Science, 82(4):318-327.

Saltarelli, D., Wildsoet, C., Nickla, D., and Troilo, D. (2004) Susceptibility to form Deprivation Myopia in Chicks is Not Altered by an Early Experience of Myopia. Optometry and Vision Science, 81(2):119-126.

Coletta, N.J., Marcos, S., Wildsoet, C., and Troilo, D. (2003) Double-Pass Measurement of Retinal Image Quality in the Chicken Eye. Optometry and Vision Science, 80(1):50-57.

Nickla, D.L., Wildsoet, C.F., and Troilo, D. (2002) Diurnal Rhythms in Intraocular Pressure, Axial Length and Choroidal Thickness in a Primate Model of Eye Growth, the common marmoset. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 43(8):2519-2528.

Nickla, D.L., Wildsoet, C.F., and Troilo, D. (2001) Endogenous Rhythms in Axial Length and Choroids Thickness in Chicks: Implications for Ocular Growth Regulation. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 42(3):584-588.

Li, T., Troilo, D., and Howland, H.C.  (2000) The Effects of Darkness and Strength of Diurnal Rhythm on Light-Induced Changes in the Eye. Vision Research, 40(18):2387-93.

Rada, J.A., Nickla, D.L. and Troilo, D. (2000) Decreased Proteoglycan Synthesis Associated With Form Deprivation Myopia in Mature Primate Eyes. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 41(8):2050-2058.

Troilo, D., Nickla, D.L. and Wildsoet C.F. (2000) Form Deprivation Myopia in a Mature Primate. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 41(8):2043-2049.

Troilo, D., Nickla, D.L. and Wildsoet, C.F. (2000) Choroidal Thickness Changes During Altered Eye Growth and Refractive State in a Primate. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 41(6):1259-58.

Sengpiel, F., Troilo, D., Kind, P., Graham, B. and Blakemore, C. (1996) Functional Architecture of area 17 in Normal and Monocularly Deprived Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Visual Neuroscience, 13:145-160.

Troilo, D., Xiong, M., Crowley, J.C. and Finlay, B.L. (1996) Factors Controlling the Dendritic Arborization of Retinal Ganglion Cells. Visual Neuroscience, 13:721-34.

Glasser, A., Murphy, C.J., Troilo, D. and Howland, H.C. (1995) The Mechanism of Lenticular Accommodation in Chicks. Vision Research, 35:1525-1540.

Li, T., Troilo, D., Glasser, A. and Howland, H.C. (1995) Constant Light Produces Severe Corneal Flattening and Hyperopia in Chickens. Vision Research, 35:1203-1209.

Troilo, D., Li, T., Glasser, A. and Howland, H.C. (1995) Differences in Eye Growth and the Response to Vsual Deprivation in Different Strains of Chicken. Vision Research, 35:1211-1216.

Glasser, A., Troilo, D. and Howland, H.C. (1994) The Mechanism of Corneal Accommodation in Chicks. Vision Research, 34:1549-1566.

Fullwood, N.J., Troilo, D., Wallman, J. and Meek, K.M. (1993) Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction and Histochemical Studies of Normal and Myopic Chick Eyes. Tissue and Cell, 25:73-85.

Troilo, D.and Judge, S.J. (1993) Ocular Development and Visual Deprivation Myopia in the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Vision Research, 33:1311-1324.

Troilo, D., Howland, H.C. and Judge, S.J. (1993) Visual Optics and Retinal cone Topography in the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Vision Research, 33:1301-1310.

Troilo, D.(1992) Neonatal Eye Growth and Emmetropisation – A literature review. Eye, 6:154-161.

Troilo, D.and Wallman, J. (1991) The Regulation of  Eye Growth and Refractive State: An Experimental Study of Emmetropization. Vision Research, 31:1237-1250.

Schaeffel, F., Troilo, D., Wallman, J. and Howland, H.C. (1990) Developing Eyes That Lack Accommodation Grow to Compensate for Imposed Defocus. Visual Neuroscience, 4:177-183. [reviewed in News and Views: Judge, S.J. (1990) Does the Eye Grow Into Focus? Nature, 345(6275):477-478.]

Troilo, D.and Wallman, J. (1987) Changes in Corneal Curvature During Accommodation in Chicks. Vision Research, 27:241-247. [reviewed in News and Views: Martin, G.R. (1987) How do Birds Accommodate? Nature, 328(6129):383.]

Troilo, D., Gottlieb, M.D. and Wallman, J. (1987) Visual Deprivation Causes Myopia in Chicks with Optic Nerve Section. Current Eye Research, 6:993-999. [reviewed in News and Views: Judge, S.J. (1990) Does the Eye Grow Into Focus? Nature, 345(6275):477-478.]

Cameron, R. and Troilo, D. (1982) Fly Mediated Spore Dispersal in Splachnum Ampullaceum (Musci). The Michigan Botanist, 21:59-65.

Troilo, D.B.and Cameron, R. (1981) Comparative Behavior of Pyrellia Cyanicolor (Diptera: Muscidae) on the Moss Splachnum Ampullaceum and on Substrates of Nutritional Value. The Great Lakes Entomologist, 14:191-195.

Books, Chapters, and Proceedings

Flitcroft, I. and Troilo, D. (2000) Three Dimensional Growth Patterns in myopia. Myopia 2000: Proceedings of the VIII International Conference on Myopia. F. Thorn, D. Troilo and J. Gwiazda. Boston, MA, Myopia 2000, Inc.: 175-179.

Flitcroft, I., Troilo, D. and Wildsoet, C. (2000) A New Perspective on the Pharmacological Treatment of Myopia. Myopia 2000: Proceedings of the VIII International Conference on Myopia. F. Thorn, D. Troilo and J. Gwiazda. Boston, MA, Myopia 2000, Inc.: 195-199.

Mertz, J.R., Nickla, D.L. and Troilo, D. (2000) Choroidal Retinoic Acid in a Primate Model of Eye Growth: The Common Marmoset. Myopia 2000: Proceedings of the VIII International Conference on Myopia. F. Thorn, D. Troilo and J. Gwiazda. Boston, MA, Myopia 2000, Inc.: 200-204.

Nickla, D.L., Wildsoet, C.F. and Troilo, D. (2000) Ocular Diurnal Rhythms in Chicks and Marmosets: Implications for Ocular Growth Regulation. Myopia 2000: Proceedings of the VIII International Conference on Myopia. F. Thorn, D. Troilo and J. Gwiazda. Boston, MA: 302-307.

Thorn, F., Troilo, D. and Gwiazda, J., Eds. (2000) Myopia 2000: Proceedings of the VIII International Conference on Myopia. Boston, Myopia 2000, Inc.

Troilo, D., Boisvert, N. and Nau, A. (2000) How is Accommodation Related to the Development of Refractive State? Evidence from Experimental Studies Using Animal Models. Myopia 2000: Proceedings of the VIII International Conference on Myopia. F. Thorn, D. Troilo and J. Gwiazda. Boston, MA, Myopia 2000, Inc.: 254-258.

Troilo, D.and Nickla, D.L. (2000) Visual Regulation of Eye Growth and Refractive State in a New World Primate. Myopia 2000: Proceedings of the VIII International Conference on Myopia. F. Thorn, D. Troilo and J. Gwiazda. Boston, MA, Myopia 2000, Inc.: 170-174.

Troilo, D.(1998) Changes in Retinal Morphology Following Experimentally Induced  Myopia. Optical Society of America, Technical Digest Series, Vol. 1, Vision Science and Its Applications, pp.206-209.

Troilo, D., Francis, E. and Yi, G. (1998) Levels of Control in the Refractive Development of the Eye: Evidence from Animal Studies. In: Myopia Notes: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Myopia, Tokoro, T. (Ed.), Springer-Verlag, Tokyo, pp. 285-296.

Troilo, D., Francis, E. and Yi, G. (1997) The Temporal Characteristics of Eye Growth Control Mechanisms Differ Following Optic Nerve Section. Optical Society of America, Technical Digest Series, Vol. 1, Vision Science and Its Applications, pp.134-137.

Troilo, D.(1990) Experimental Studies of Emmetropization in the Chick. In: Myopia and the Control of Eye Growth. Ciba Foundation Symposium No. 155, John Wiley and Sons, London, pp. 89-114.

Abstracts (Last 3 Years)

Benavente-Perez, A., Nour A., Yan, L., Roden, K., Abarr, K., and Troilo D.  (2013) Daily interruptions of hyperopic defocus can reduce induced eye growth growth in marmosets. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 54: ARVO E-Abstract 2327.

Troilo, D. Jiang, L., Benavente-Perez, A., Zhou, X., Lu, F., Qu, J. (2013) Eye shape and peripheral refraction as predictors of myopia progression in a population of Chinese children. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 54: ARVO E-Abstract 5707.

Troilo D., Benavente-Perez A., Nour A. (2012) Optical Approaches for Controlling Myopia Progression: Evidence from Experimental Models. Optical Society of America (OSA) Annual Meeting, Frontiers in Optics (FiO).

Hendrickson, A.E., Troilo, D., Springer, A.D. (2011) Foveal Cone Density Shows a Rapid Postnatal Maturation in the Marmoset Monkey. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 52: ARVO E-Abstract.

Summers Rada, J.A., Datson, N.A., Troilo, D. (2011) Early Changes in Gene Expression in RPE/Choroid of Marmoset Eyes in Response to Image Formation. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 52: ARVO E-Abstract.

Troilo, D., Benavente-Perez, A., Nour, A. K., and Coletta, N.J. (2010) The Effects of Multifocal Contact Lens Designs in Non-Human Primates. In: Proceedings of the 13th International Myopia Conference, Optometry and Vision Science (Supplement), in press.

Benavente-Perez, A., Nour, A., and Troilo D. (2010) The Accommodative Response Under Lens-Imposed Anisometropia in Humans. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 51: ARVO E-Abstract 3932.

Nour, A., Benavente-Perez, A., and Troilo D. (2010) The Effect of Simultaneous ±5D Defocus Imposed by Multizone Soft Contact Lenses on Eye Growth and Development of Refractive State in Marmosets. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 51: ARVO E-Abstract 1728.

Ivanova, E., Hwang, S.Y. Pan, Z.-H., and Troilo, D. (2009) Evaluation of AAV-Mediated Expression of Channelrhodopsin-2 in the Marmoset Retina. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 50: ARVO E-Abstract 1027.

Rucker, F.J., Zhu, X., Troilo, D., Bitzer, M., Schaeffel, F., Wallman, J. (2009) Inter-Ocular Interactions in Lens Compensation: Yoking and Anti-Yoking. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 50: ARVO E-Abstract 3931.

Wong, S., Coletta, N.J., and Troilo, D. (2009) A Study of Marmoset foveal Morphology Using Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 50: ARVO E-Abstract 6208.