Barry Lee, PhD
Biological Sciences
SUNY College of Optometry
33 West 42nd Street New York, NY 10036
(212) 938 - 5773
blee@sunyopt.edu

Lab Website

Research Description

 

Information Transfer Through Ganglion Cells

The primate retina provides an ideal locus for an interdisciplinary approach to visual science.  Retinal physiology can be related to retinal anatomy and the cell biology of retinal neurons, and, going in the other direction, it can be compared with human psychophysical data.  We record from retinal elements and use these data as a basis for modeling retinal processing and we also are closely concerned with how retinal signals form a basis for our perceptual performance.  For example, color vision becomes much poorer in the retinal periphery.  A recent series of experiments showed that this degradation is not due to inadequacies of retinal processing; it must have its origin in cortical mechanisms.  Other interests include mechanisms of adaptation, coding of natural scenes and information content of spike trains in relation to spatial and temporal tasks. In addition, evolution of color vision in new-world primates is studied. Primates are the only mammals with full trichromatic color vision, and this seems to have evolved at the beginning of primate evolution, close to when New- and Old-World primates separated. The 2 groups differ significantly in their color-vision capabilities, and studying this difference may help us understand how and way trichromacy evolved in this group. Finally, retinal physiology in relation to clinical tests provides an important practical application for our research.

Education

 

King's College School, Wimbledon, England, 1958-1964   

St. Johns' College, Oxford, England, 1964-1967   

University College London, England and National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London, England, 1967-1970  

Qualifications

 

Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of London, PhD, 1971

Physiology and Psychology, Oxford, BA, 1967

Appointments

 
  • M.R.C. Scholar in the Department of Physiology and Pharmocology, National Institute for Medical Research, London, 1967-70

  • Teaching Assistant, University College London, 1968-69

  • Research Associate, Centre for Brain Research, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, 1971-73

  • Welcome Travelling Research Fellow, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, 37077, Germany, 1974-75

  • Staff Member, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, 37077, 1975-1981.

  • Group Leader, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, 37077, 1981-2000; joint appointment with SUNY, 2000 to date.

  • Lions Fight for Sight Fellow, Department of Physiology, University of Sydney, Australia, Jan-May 1984.

  • Visiting Fellow, John Curtin School of Medical Research, Jan-March, 1991

  • Professor, Biopsychology Committee, Department of Psychology, University of Chicago, 1991-1994.

  • Professor, Biological Sciences, SUNY College of Optometry, September 2000 to date.

Prizes and Awards

 
  • Verriest Medal of the International Colour Vision Society, 2007.

  • Rank Prize for Optoelectronics. For "Pathways in the retina" (with V.C. Smith, J. Pokorny, D. Dacey), 2004..

  • Fellow of the Optical Society of America, 1996.

  • Distinguished Visiting Lecturer, York University, Toronto, Nov. 1990

Grant Support

 
  • M.R.C. Research Scholarship, 1967-1970

  • Welcome Traveling Research Fellowship, 1974

  • NATO Collaborative Research Grant (with A. Valberg, Oslo), 1984-1987

  • NATO Collaborative Research Grant (with J. Pokorny and V.C. Smith, University of Chicago, and A. Valberg, Oslo), 1988-1992.

  • NATO Collaborative Research Grant (with J. Troy, Northwestern University, Evanston, ILL), 1993-1998.

  • Grant Support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, 1984-2000.

  • Collaborative CNPq/MPG Grant with Prof. L. Silveira, Belem, Brazil, 1995-2000.

  • NIH NEI R01-13112, Information transfer in the retina, 2000-2005, 2006-2011.

Teaching Experience

 
  • Lectures on Vision as part of the Neuroscience Program at the University of Gottingen, 1981-1985.

  • Courses in Vision and Experimental Methods in the Biopsychology Program of the University of Chicago, 1991-1994.

  • Courses vision, SUNY Optometry, 2000 to date.

Societies

 
  • Directorial Board, International Color Vision Society, 1998 to date

  • Program Committee, Optical Society of America, 2003 to date

  • Society for Neuroscience, European Neuroscience Association, Association for Research in Vision and Opthalmology, Optical Society of America, International Color Vision Society, German Neuroscience Society.

Invited Lectures at Major Meetings

 
  • "Models of Opponent Processing" (1983); Symposium on colour vision, European Neuroscience Congress.

  • Primate Ganglion Cells and the Luminance and Chromatic Channels of Psychophysics.'(1987) American Society for Neuroscience Annual Congress, New Orleans. Symposium on Visual Information Processing in The Primate Retina.

  • "Primate Ganglion Cells and Channels."  (1987) Seeing Contour and Colour; Symposium of the Northern Eye Institute, Manchester, England.

  • "Problems posed by primate ganglion cells for functional anatomy and psychophysics." (1988) NATO Advanced Study Institute on the Inner Retina, Oldenburg, FRG.

  •  "The Role of Primate Ganglion Cells  in Colour Vision." (1989).

  • International Union of Physiological Sciences Congress Helsinki, Finland. Symposium on Colour Vision.

  • "The Physiological Basis of Photometry" (1989) Rank Prize Funds

  • Symposium on Colour Vision, Broadway, England.

  • "Has luminance a single physiological substrate?" (1990) Symposium on "Is There a Luminance Channel?",  Optical Society of America Annual Congress, Boston.

  • "On the relation between physiological sensitivity and psychophysical detection" NATO Advanced Research Workshop. `Advances in Understanding the Visual Process' Roros, Norway, 1990

  • "Primate Ganglion Cells and the Luminance and Chromatic Channels of Psychophysics". Invited lecture, Australian Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting, Auckland, New Zealand, 1991

  • "Primate Ganglion Cells and the Luminance and Chromatic Channels of Psychophysics". In Symposium on Parallel Pathways in Vision, 3rd. IBRO Congress, Montreal, 1991.

  • "Parallel Pathways in Primate Retina", Dalton Color Vision Meeting, Manchester, 1994.

  • "Structure and Function in Primate Retina". International Research Group for Color Vision Deficiencies, Pau, 1995.

  • "Parallel Pathways in the Retina of Old and New-World Primates", 50th. Anniversary Congress, Brazilian Academy of Science, 1996.

  • "Receptor Inputs to Primate Ganglion Cells", Color Vision Workshop, 1996.

  • "Physiological Basis of Hyperacuity", ECVP, 1996.

  • "Single Units and Perception; 25 years on"  ECVP 1997

  • "Adaptation in Primate Retina"  Smith-Kettlwell Workshop on Visual Adaptation, 1998

  • "Retinal Messages" Juan March Foundation Symposium on Visual Perception, 1998

  • "Mechanisms of Adaptation in Primate Retina" ECVP 2000

  • "Ganglion Cell Spike Trains and Spatial Vision', In "Vision in Health and Disease", IBRO Satellite Symposium, Sydney, 2001.

  • "Retinal Physiology and Vision testing" American Optometric Society Annual Meeting, Symposium on Vision Testing, 2001.

  • "How Macaque Retinal Ganglion Cells Respond to Natural Chromatic and Temporal Stimuli" Fall Vision Meeting of OSA, 2002.

  • "Ganglion Cells and Motion Signals'  PrimaVision-Evolution and Function of the Primate Visual System, 2003.

  • "Ganglion Cells and Motion Signals: Transient Cells Provide Accurate Spatial Information Even for Slow Movement, The plurality of visual Pathways, Symposium of the Craik Club, Cambridge, 2004.

  • "Ganglion Cells and Motion Signals". Neurovision Meeting, Bochum, 2004.

  • "Primate Ganglion Cell Function in Health and Disease" Form and Function in the Eye, 25th Anniversary Symposium of the Nova Scotia Eye Care Center, Halifax, CA., 2004.

  • "Time Course of Adaptation in Primate Outer Retina" Fall Vision Meeting of OSA, 2004.

  • "Mechanisms of Color Vision" CIE Conference, Granada, Spain, 2005.

  • "Specificity of Cone Connectivity and Chromatic Signals in Prmate Retina" ECVP, St. Petersburg, 2006.

  • "Specificity of Retinal Signals" Keynote lecture, Australian Summer Color Conference, Melbourne, Australia, 2007.

International Meetings Organized

 
  • Satellite Symposium of the 17th. IUPS Meeting, Budapest, in Braunlage, Germany.

  • `Vision in Primates and other mammals.' Organizing secretary, with O.D. Creutzfeldt, P.O. Bishop, R.H. Wurtz.

  • NATO Advanced Research Workshop. `Advances in Understanding the Visual Process' Roros, Norway, 1990 (with A. Valberg).

  • Biennial ICVS Congress, 1999 (with W. Paulus).

  • Biennial ICVS Congress, Belem, Brazil, 2007 (with L.C.L. Silveira).

Reviewing and Editorial Activities

 
  • Editorial Boards, Visual Neuroscience 1995-1999,  Vision Research 1997 to date.

  • Color Research and Application

  • Experimental Brain Research

  • JOSA

  • Journal of Neurophysiology

  • Journal of Neuroscience

  • Journal of Physiology

  • Nature

  • Science

  • Vision Research

  • Visual Neuroscience

Languages

 
  • English

  • German

Publications

 

Books:

From Pigments to Perception; Advances in Understanding Visual Processes, ed. B.B. Lee and A. Valberg, Plenum Press, 1991.

Full Papers:

1. Lee, B.B., Mandl, G. and Stean, J.P.B. (1969) Microelectrode Tip Position Marking in Nervous Tissue; A New Dye Method.Journal of Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 27, 610-613.

2. Lee, B.B.  (1970) Effects of Some Anaesthetics on Neurones in the Striate Cortex of the Ccat. PhD Thesis.

3. Bartlett, J.R., Doty, R.W., Lee, B.B. and Sakakura, H. (1976). Influence of Saccadic Eye Movements on Geniculo-Striate Excitability in Normal Monkeys. Experimental Brain Research, 25, 487-510.

4. Bartlett, J.R., Doty, R.W. Lee, B.B., Negrao, N. and Overman, W.H. (1977) Deleterious Effects of Prolonged Electrical Stimulation of Striate Cortex in Macaques. Brain, Behavior and Evolution, 14, 46-66. 

5. Virsu, V., Lee, B.B., and Creutzfeldt, O.D. (1977) Dark Adaptation and Receptive Field Organisation of Cells in the Cat Lateral Geniculate Nucleus. Experimental Brain Research, 27, 35-50.

6. Lee, B.B., Virsu, V. and Creutzfeldt, O.D. (1977) Responses of Cells in the Cat lateral Geniculate Nucleus to Moving Stimuli at Various Levels of Light and Dark Adaptation. Experimental. Brain Research, 27, 51-59.

7. Lee, B.B., Albus, K., Heggelund, P., Hulme, M.J. and Creutzfeldt, OD (1977) The Depth Distribution of Optimal Stimulus Orientations for Neurones in Cat Area 17. Experimental Brain Research, 27, 301-314. 

8. Lee, B.B., Cleland, B.G. and Creutzfeldt, O.D. (1977) The Retinal Input to Cells in Area 17 of the Cat's Cortex. Experimental Brain Research, 30, 527-538. 

9. Lee, B.B. and Willshaw, D. (1978) Responses of the Various Types of Cat Retinal Ganglion Cells to Moving Contours. Vision Research, 18, 757-765.

10. Creutzfeldt, OD, Lee, B.B. and Elepfandt, A. (1979) A Quantitative Study of Chromatic Organization and Receptive Fields of Cells in the Lateral Geniculate Body of the Rhesus Monkey.Experimental Brain Research, 35, 527-545.

11. Lee, B.B., Creutzfeldt, OD and Elepfandt, A. (1979) The responses of magno- and parvocellular cells of the monkey's lateral geniculate body to moving stimuli. Experimental Brain Research, 35, 547-557. 

12. Lee, B.B., Virsu, V. and Elepfandt, A. (1981) The phase of responses to moving gratings in cells of the cat retina and lateral geniculate nucleus. Journal of Neurophysiology 45, 801-817.

13. Lee, B.B., Virsu, V. and Elepfandt, A. (1981) The phase of responses to moving gratings of simple cells in cat striate cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 45, 818-838.

14. Nothdurft, H.C. and Lee, B.B. (1982) Responses to coloured patterns in the macaque lateral geniculate nucleus: pattern processing in single neurones. Experimental Brain Research 48, 43-54.

15. Nothdurft, H.C. and Lee, B.B. (1982) Responses to coloured patterns in the macaque lateral geniculate nucleus; analysis of receptive field properties. Experimental Brain Research 48, 55-65.

16. Hicks, T.P., Lee, B.B. and Vidyasagar, T.R. (1983) The responses of cells in macaque lateral geniculate nucleus to sinusoidal gratings. Journal of Physiology 337, 183-200.

17. Cleland, B.G., Lee, B.B. and Vidyasagar, T.R. (1983) Responses of neurones in the cat's Lateral geniculate nucleus to moving bars of different length.Journal of Neuroscience. 3, 108-116.

18. Lee, B.B., Virsu, V. and Elepfandt, E. (1983) Cell responses in dorsal layers of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus as a function of intensity and wavelength. Journal of Neurophysiology 50, 849-863.

19. Virsu, V. and Lee, B.B. (1983) Light adaptation in cells of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus and its relation to human light adaptation. Journal of Neurophysiology 50, 864-878.

 20. Lee, B.B., Virsu, V. and Creutzfeldt, O.D. (1983) Linear signal transmission from prepotentials to cells in the macaque lateral geniculate nucleus. Experimental Brain Research 52, 50-56.

21. Valberg, A., Lee, B.B., Tigwell, D.A. and Creutzfeldt, O.D. (1985) A simultaneous contrast effect of remote surrounds in neurones of the macaque lateral geniculate nucleus. Experimental Brain Research, 58, 604-608.

22. Cleland, B.G. and Lee, B.B. (1986) A comparison of the visual responses of cat lateral geniculate neurones with those of ganglion cells afferent to them. Journal of Physiology,  369, 249-268.

23. Creutzfeldt, O.D., Lee, B.B. and Valberg, A. (1986) Colour and brightness signals of parvocellular lateral geniculate neurons. Experimental Brain Research, 63, 21-34.

24. Valberg, A., Lee, B.B. and Tigwell, D.A. (1986) Neurones with strong inhibitory S-cone inputs in the macaque lateral geniculate nucleus. Vision Research, 26, 1061-1064.

25. Valberg, A., Seim, T., Lee, B.B. and Tryti, J. (1986) Reconstruction of equidistant colour space from responses of visual neurons of macaques.  Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 3, 1726-1734.

26. Lee, B.B., Valberg, A., Tigwell, D.A. and Tryti, J. (1987) An account of responses of cells in the dorsal layers of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus to successive contrast. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B, 230, 293-314.

27. Virsu, V., Lee, B.B. and Creutzfeldt, O.D. (1987) Mesopic spectral responses and the Purkinje shift of macaque lateral geniculate cells. Vision Research, 27, 191-200.

28. Crook, J.M., Lee, B.B., Tigwell, D.A. and Valberg, A. (1987) Thresholds to chromatic spots of cells in the macaque lateral geniculate nucleus as compared to detection sensitivity in man. Journal of Physiology, 392, 193-211.

29. Valberg, A., Lee, B.B. and Tryti, J. (1987) Simulation of responses of spectrally opponent cells of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus to chromatic and achromatic light stimuli. Vision Research, 27, 867-882.

30. Lee, B.B. and Martin, P.R. (1987) The physiological basis of the luminosity function. Die Farbe, 34, 109-115.

31. Valberg, A., Seim, T. and Lee, B.B. (1987) A three-stage model of colour perception. Die Farbe, 34, 229-234.

32. Crook, J.M., Lange-Malecki, B., Lee, B.B. and Valberg, A. (1988). Visual resolution of macaque retinal ganglion cells. Journal of Physiology, 396, 205-224.

33. Lee, B.B., Martin, P.R. and Valberg, A. (1988). The physiological basis of heterochromatic flicker photometry demonstrated in the ganglion cells of the macaque retina. Journal of Physiology, 404, 323-347.

34. Lee, B.B., Martin, P.R. and Valberg, A. (1989). A non-linearity in summation of M- and L-cone inputs to phasic retinal ganglion cells of the macaque. Journal of Neuroscience 9, 1433-1442.

35. Lee, B.B., Martin, P.R. and Valberg, A. (1989). Sensitivity of macaque ganglion cells to luminance and chromatic flicker. Journal of Physiology, 414, 223-243.

36. Lee, B.B., Martin, P.R. and Valberg, A. (1989). Amplitude and phase of responses of macaque ganglion cells to flickering stimuli. Journal of Physiology, 414, 245-263.

37. Valberg, A. and Lee, B.B. (1989) Detection and discrimination of colour; a comparison of physiological and psychophysical data. Physica Scripta, 39, 178-186.

38. Kaplan, E., Lee, B.B. and Shapley, R.M. (1990) New Views of primate retinal function. Progress in Retinal Research, 9, 273-336.

39. Kaiser, P.K., Lee, B.B., Martin P.R. and Valberg, A. (1990) The physiological basis of the minimally distinct border demonstrated in the ganglion cells of the macaque retina. Journal of Physiology 422, 153-183.

40. Lee, B.B., Pokorny, J., Smith, V.C., Martin, P.R. and Valberg, A. (1990) Luminance and chromatic modulation sensitivity of macaque ganglion cells and human observers. Journal of the Optical  Society of America A, 7, 2223-2236.

41. Lee, B.B. (1991) Die Enstehung der Farbenlehre. MPG Spiegel, 3,  11-15.

42. Kremers, J., Lee, B.B. and Kaiser, J. (1992) Sensitivity of macaque ganglion cells and human observers to combined luminance and chromatic modulation. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 9 1477-1485.

43. Smith, V.C., Pokorny, J., Lee, B.B., Martin, P.R. and Valberg, A. (1992) Responses of ganglion cells of the macaque retina on changing the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights. Journal of Physiology, 458 191-221.

44. Valberg, A., Lee, B.B., Kaiser, P.K. and Kremers, J. (1992) Responses of macaque ganglion cells to chromatic borders. Journal of Physiology, 458 579-602.

45. Valberg, A. and Lee, B.B. (1992). Main cell systems in primate visual pathways. Current Opinion in Ophthalmology, 3 813-823.

46. Lee, B.B. (1993) Macaque ganglion cells and spatial vision. Progress in Brain Research, 95, 33-43.

47. Lee, B.B., Wehrhahn, C., Westheimer, G. and Kremers, J. (1993).Macaque ganglion cell responses to stimuli that elicit hyperacuity in man: Detection of small displacements. Journal of Neuroscience, 13 1001-1009.

48. Regan, D.M. and Lee, B.B. (1993). Macaque ganglion cell responses and the 40 Hz evoked response in man. Visual Neuroscience, 10, 439-445.

49. Kremers, J., Lee, B.B., Pokorny, J. and Smith, V.C. (1993). Responses of macaque ganglion cells and human observers to compound periodic waveforms. Vision Research, 14, 1997-2011.

50. Lee, B.B., Martin, P.R., Valberg, A. and Kremers, J. (1993). Physiological mechanisms underlying psychophysical sensitivity to combined luminance and chromatic luminance modulation. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 10, 1403-1412.

51. Troy, J. and Lee, B.B. (1994). Steady discharges of macaque retinal ganglion cells. Visual Neuroscience, 11, 111-118.

52. Kremers, J., Yeh, T. and Lee, B.B. (1994). Responses of macaque ganglion cells and human observers to the relative phase of heterochromatically modulated lights: The effect of stimulus size. Vision Research, 34, 217-221.

53. Dacey, D. and Lee, B.B.  (1994). The blue-ON pathway in primate retina originates from a distinct bistratified ganglion cell type. Nature, 367, 731-735.

54. Lee, B.B., Pokorny, J., Smith, V.C. and Kremers, J. (1994). Responses to pulses and sinusoids of macaque ganglion cells. Vision Research , 34, 3081-3096.

55. Yeh, T., Lee, B.B. and Kremers, J. (1995)  The response of macaque retinal ganglion cells to cone specific modulation. Journal of the Optical Society of  America A 12, 456-464.

56. Lee, B.B., Wehrhahn, C., Westheimer, G. and Kremers, J. (1995) The spatial precision of macaque ganglion cell signals and Vernier acuity.  Vision Research, 35, 2743-2758.

57. Yeh, T., Lee, B.B., Kremers, J., Cowing, J.A., Hunt, D.M., Martin, P.R.,  Troy, J.B. (1995) Responses of cells of the parvocellular and magnocellular pathways of dichromatic and trichromatic new world primates (C. jacchus) Journal of Neuroscience, 15, 7892-7904..

58. Lee, B.B.  Receptive fields in primate retina.  (1996) Vision  Research  36, 631-644.

59. Dacey, D.M., Lee, B.B., Stafford, D.K., Smith, V.C. and Pokorny, J. (1996) Horizontal cells of the primate retina:  Cone specificity without spectral opponency.   Science,  271, 656-658.

60. Wilder, H.D., Grunert, U, Lee, B.B. and Martin, P.R. (1996) Topography of ganglion cells and photoreceptors in the retina of the new-world marmoset monkey, Callithrix Jacchus.  Visual Neuroscience, 13, 335-352.           

61. Yeh, T., Lee, B.B. and Kremers, J.  (1996) The time course of adaptation in macaque ganglion cells. Vision Research, 36, 913-931.

62. Kleinschmidt, A., Lee, B.B., Requardt, M. and Frahm, J. (1996) Functional mapping of color processing by magnetic resonance imaging of responses to selective P- and M-pathway stimulation. Experimental  Brain Research. 110, 279-288.

63. Wachtler, T., Wehrhahn, C. and Lee, B.B. (1996) A simple model of human foveal ganglion cell responses to hyperacuity stimuli. Computational Neurobiology,  3, 73-82.

64. Lee, B.B., Silveira, L.C.L., Yamada, E. and Kremers, J. (1996).  Parallel pathways in the retina of old- and new-world primates.  Brazilian Journal of Biology,  56, 323-338.

65. Yamada, E., Silveira, L.C.L., Gomes, F.L. and Lee, B.B.  (1996) The retinal ganglion cell classes of new-world primates. Brazilian Journal of Biology,  56, 381-396.

66. Lee, B.B., Pokorny, J., Smith, V.C. and Kremers, J. (1997). Rod input to primate ganglion cells, Vision Research, 37, 2813-2828.

67. Lee, B.B. Kremers, J. and Yeh, T. (1998). Receptive field structure of primate retinal ganglion cells studied with a novel method. Visual Neuroscience, 15, 161-175.

68. Silveira, L.C.L., Lee, B.B., Yamada, E. and Kremers, J. (1998). Postreceptoral mechanisms of color vision in new-world primates. Vision Research, 38, 3329-3338.

69. Kremers, J. and Lee, B.B. (1998). Comparative retinal physiology in Anthropoids. Vision Research, 38, 3339-3344.

70. Lee, B.B. (1999) Single units and sensation: 25 years on. Perception,28, 1493-1508.

71. Silveira, L.C.L., Lee, B.B., Yamada, E.S., Kremers, J., Hunt, D.M., Martin, P.R. and Gomes F.L. (1999). Ganglion cells of a short-wavelength pathway in new-world monkeys: morphology and physiology.  Visual Neuroscience, 16, 333-343.

72. Tassinari, G., Marzi, C.A., Lee, B.B., Di Lollo, V. (1999).  A possible selective impairment of magnocellular function in compression of the anterior visual pathways.  Experimental Brain Research,  127, 391-401.

73. Lee, B.B., Dacey, D.M, Smith, V.C., Pokorny. J. (1999). Horizontal cells reveal cone-type specific adaptation in primate retina.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 96, 14611-14616

74. Lee, B.B., Fiorentini, A. (2000).  Tobias Mayer's Color Triangle.  Color Research and Application, 25, 66-74.

75. Lee, B.B. (2000) Chromatic contributions to a hyperacuity task. Vision Research, 40, 817-832..

76. Lee, B.B., Silveira, L.C.L., Yamada, E., Hunt, D.M., Kremers, J., Martin, P.R. and Troy, J. (2000),  Visual responses of ganglion cells of a New-World primate, Cebus apella.  Journal of Physiology, 528, 573-590.

77. Dacey, D.M., Packer, O.S., Diller, L., Brainard, D., Peterson, B., Lee, B.B. (2000).  Center-surround receptive field structure of cone bipolar cells in primate retina.  Vision Research, 40, 1801-1811. 

78. Smith, V.C., Dacey, D.M., Pokorny, J., Lee, B.B. (2001). The temporal response of primate horizontal cells.  Journal of Neurophysiology, 85, 545-558.

79. Lee, B.B. (2001).  Colour Science in the eighteenth century.  Color Research and Application, 26, S25-27.

80. Smith, V.C.,, Pokorny, J., Sun V.C.W., Lee, B.B. (2001).  Long wavelength Chromatic modulation alters psychophysical S-cone sensitivity but not the sensitivity of S-(L+M) ganglion cells.  Color Research and Application, 26, S150-156.

81. Pokorny, J., Smith, V.C., Lee, B.B. (2001).  Chromaticity and Temporal Sensitivity of Macaque Ganglion Cells. Color Research and Application, 26, S140-144.

82. Packer, O., Diller, L.C., Verweij, J., Lee, B.B., Pokorny, J., Williams, D.R., Dacey, D.M., Brainard, D.H. (2001).  Characterization and use of a digital light projector for vision research.  Vision Research, 41, 427-39.

83. Martin, P.R., Lee B.B., White, A.J.R., Solomon,(2001). Chromatic sensitivity of ganglion cells in the peripheral primate retina.  Nature, 410, 933-936..

84. Joost, U., Lee, B.B., Zaidi, Q. (2002).  Lichtenberg Letter to Goethe. Color Research and Application, 27, 300-303..

85. Passaglia, C.L., Troy, J.B., Rüttiger, L., Lee, B.B. (2002). Orientation Sensitivity of Ganglion Cells in Primate Retina.  Vision Research, 42, 683-694..

86. Rüttiger, L., Sun, H., Lee, B.B. (2002).  Transient cells can be neurometrically sustained; responses of macaque ganglion cells to moving targets.  Journal of Vision, 2, 232-244.

87. White, A., Sun, H., Swanson, W.R., Lee, B.B. (2002). An investigation of the physiological basis of the frequency doubling illusion. IOVS, 43, 3590-3599.

88. van Hateren, J.H., Rüttiger, L., Sun, H., Lee, B.B. (2002). Processing of natural temporal stimuli by macaque retinal ganglion cells. J. Neurosci., 22, 9945-9960.

89. Solomon, S.G., Martin, P.R., White, A.J.R., Lee, B.B. (2002).  Modulation sensitivity of ganglion cells in peripheral retina of macaque. Vision Research, 42, 2893-2898. 

90. Silveira, L.C.L., Saito, C.A., Lee, B.B., Kremers, J., da Silva, M.F., Kilavik, B.E.,  Yamada, E.S., Perry, V.H.  (2003) Morphology and physiology of primate M and P cells. Prog. Brain Res. 144, 21-46.

91. Lee, B.B., Dacey, D.M., Pokorny, J. Smith, V.C. (2003). Dynamics of sensitivity regulation in primate outer retina: the horizontal cell network. Journal of Vision, 3, 513-526.

92. Sun, H., Lee, B.B. (2004). The spatiotemporal precision of ganglion cell signals: a comparison of physiological and psychophysical performance with moving gratings.  Vision Research, 44, 19-33.

93. Sun, H., Lee, B.B. (2004).  A single mechanism for both luminance and chromatic vernier tasks: evidence from temporal summation. Visual Neuroscience, 21, 315-320.

94. Lee, B.B., Sun, H. (2004). The chromatic input to cells of the magnocellular pathway:  mean chromaticity and the relative phase of modulated lights.  Visual Neuroscience,  21. 309-314.

95. Lee, B.B. (2004).  Paths to color in the retina. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 87, 239-248.

96. Kunken, J., Sun, H., Lee, B.B. (2005). Macaque ganglion cells, light adaptation and the Westheimer paradigm. Vision Research, 45, 329-341.

97. Lee, B.B., Sun, H. (2005). Comparison of ganglion cell signals and psychophysical localization of moving targets can help define central motion mechanisms.  Perception, 34, 975-981,

98. Solomon, S.G., Lee, B.B., White, A.J.R., L., Martin, P.R. (2005). Chromatic organization of ganglion cell receptive fields in peripheral primate retina. Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 4527-4539.

99. Bartlett, J.R., DeYoe, E.A., Doty, R.W., Lee, B.B., Lewine, J.D., Negrao, N., Overman, W.H. (2005). Psychophysics of electrical stimulation of striate cortex of macaques. Journal of Neurophysiology, 94, 3430-3442.

100. Sun, H., Smithson, H., Zaidi, Q., Lee, B.B. (2006) Specificity of cone inputs to macaque ganglion cells. Journal of Neurophysiology, 95, 837-849.

101. Sun, H., Smithson, H., Zaidi, Q. and Lee, B.B. (2006). Do magnocellular and parvocellular ganglion cells avoid short-wavelength cone input?  Visual Neuroscience, 23, 323-330.

102. Solomon, S.G., Lee, B.B., Sun, H. (2006). Suppressive surrounds and contrast gain in magnocellular-pathway retinal ganglion cells of macaque. Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 8715-8726.

103. Marlison, J. de A., Ventura, D.F., Filho, M. da S., de Souza, J.M., Maciel, R., Lee, B.B. (2006). Response of carp (Cyprinus carpio) horizontal cells to heterochromatic flicker photometry. Visual Neuroscience, 23, 441-446.

104. Lee, B.B., Sun, H. and Zucchini, W. (2007). The temporal response of macaque ganglion cells and central mechanisms of flicker detection. Submitted

Book Chapters

1. Lee, B.B. and Creutzfeldt, O.D. The response to moving contours of cells in the macaque lateral geniculate nucleus.  In Information processing in the nervous system', Pavlov Institute Press, Leningrad, 1976.

2. Lee, B.B. and Virsu, V. The interaction of opponent cone mechanisms in cells of the macaque lateral geniculate nucleus. In Colour Vision, Physiology and Psychophysics. ed. J.D. Mollon and L.T. Sharpe, Academic Press, 1983, pp. 225-234.

3. Valberg, A., Lee, B.B., Creutzfeldt, O.D. and Tigwell, D.A. Luminance ratio and the spectral responsiveness of cells in the macaque lateral geniculate nucleus.In  Colour Vision, Physiology and Psychophysics. ed. J.D. Mollon and L.T. Sharpe, Academic Press, 1983, pp. 235-245.

4. Tanaka, M., Lee, B.B. and Creutzfeldt, O.D. Spectral tuning and contour representation in area 17 of the awake monkey. In  Colour Vision, Physiology and Psychophysics. ed. J.D. Mollon and L.T. Sharpe, Academic Press, 1983, pp. 269-276.

5. Lee, B.B. and Martin, P.R. (1989) Primate retinal ganglion cells and the luminance and chromatic channels of psychophysics. In  Seeing Contour and Colour. Ed. J. Kulkowski, I.C.M. Dickinson and I.J. Murray. Pergamon Press, pp. 21-35.

6. Lee, B.B. (1989) Problems posed by primate ganglion cells for functional anatomy and psychophysics. In  Neurobiology of the inner retina. Ed. R. Weiler and N.N. Osborne, Springer Verlag, pp. 389-400.

7. Lee, B.B. (1991) Spectral sensitivity in the primate.  In Vision and Visual Dysfunction Vol. 7 Ed. J. Kulikowski. pp. 191-199.

8. Lee, B.B. (1991) On the relation between cellular sensitivity and psychophysical detection. In From Pigments to Perception: Advances in Understanding the Visual Process Ed. A. Valberg and B.B. Lee. pp. 105-116. Plenum Press; London-New York.

9. Kremers, J., Lee, B.B., Pokorny, J. and Smith V.C. (1991) The responses of macaque ganglion cells to complex temporal waveforms. In From Pigments to Perception::Advances in Understanding the Visual Process  Ed. A. Valberg and B.B. Lee. 173-176. Plenum Press; London-New York.

10. Lee, B.B. (1994). Ganglion cells and cortical function. In Neurobiology of the cortex, ed. Albowitz, B., Albus, K., Kuhnt, U. Nothdurft, H.C. and Wahle, P. pp.105-114. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

11. Lee, B.B. and Yeh, T. (1995) Tritan pairs identified by modulation photometry of red, green and blue lights. In Color Vision Deficiencies  XII  ed Drum B. pp.  177-184.  Kluver Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

12. Kremer, J., Lee, B.B. and Yeh, T. (1995) Receptive field dimensions of primate retinal ganglion cells.  In Color Vision Deficiencies  XII  ed Drum B.pp.  399-406.  Kluver Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

13. Lee, B.B. (1997) Parallel Pathways in primate retina.  In John Dalton's Colour Vision Legacy,  ed. Dickinson, C.M., Murray, I.J. and Carden, D. pp. 65-72.  Taylor and Francis, London

14. Lee, B.B. and Dacey, D.M. (1997) Structure and Function in primate retina.  In Color Vision Deficiencies  XIII  ed Cavonius, C.R.  pp. 107-118.  Kluver Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. .

15. Lee, B.B. (1998).  Receptors, channels and color in primate retina.  Colour vision: Perspectives from different disciplines ed. Backhaus, W.  pp.79-87.  de Gruyter, Berlin.

16. Lee, B.B. (1999).  Receptor inputs to primate ganglion cells.  In Color Vision: from molecular genetics to perception, ed. Gegenfurtner, K. and Sharpe, L.T.  Cambridge University Press, pp. 203-218

17. Kremers, J., Silveira, L.C.L., Yamada, E. and Lee, B.B. (1999).  The ecology and evolution of color vision.  In Color Vision: from molecular genetics to perception, ed. Gegenfurtner, K. and Sharpe, L.T.  Cambridge University Press, pp. 123-142.

18. Dacey, D.M. and Lee, B.B. (1999).  Functional architecture of cone pathways in primate retina.  In Color Vision: from molecular genetics to perception, ed. Gegenfurtner, K. and Sharpe, L.T.  Cambridge University Press, pp. 181-202.

19. Lee, B.B. (1999). Color and its Neurophysiology. In The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences, ed. Wilson, R.A. and Keil, F.C. MIT Press, pp. 145-147.

20. Lee, B.B. (2003). Structure of receptive field centers of midget retinal ganglion cells  In  Normal and defective color vision, ed. Mollon, J.D., Knoblauch, K. Pokorny, J. Oxford University Press, pp. 61-68.

21. Sun, H.,  Lee, B.B. (2003).  Coding of position of achromatic and chromatic edges by retinal ganglion cells.   In  Normal and defective color vision, ed. Mollon, J.D., Knoblauch, K. Pokorny, J. Oxford University Press, pp. 77-88.

22. Silveira LCL,  Kremers J, Lee BB, Martin PR (2005). Comparative anatomy and physiology of the primate retina. In Kremers J. (ed.) Structure, Function, and Evolution of the Primate Visual System. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons, p 127-160.

Short Communications

     More than one hundred fifty.