David Troilo, PhD
SUNY College of Optometry
33 West 42nd Street New York, NY 10036
Regulation of Eye Growth and Refractive State
My laboratory works on the visual regulation of postnatal eye growth and the development of refractive state. The eye continues to develop from birth to maturity in such a way that as it grows in size, it undergoes adjustments of its optical components and its refractive state. These adjustments are usually coordinated so that eyes grow toward emmetropia (emmetropization). Occasionally emmetropization does not occur and the eye becomes nearsighted (myopic) or farsighted (hyperopic). We are interested in how emmetropization works and why it occasionally leads to refractive errors.
Our earlier work, and that of others, has established that imposed defocused images can influence the growth of the eye and the development of refractive errors. We are currently interested in several aspects of this experimental ocular growth regulation including the characteristics of the visual stimuli influencing eye growth, the way the stimuli are spatially and temporally integrated, how accommodation interacts with this integration. In collaboration with Dr. Jody Summers Rada (University of Oklahoma) we are also studying the biochemical basis of the ocular growth response.
We hypothesize that the development of refractive state is determined by a confluence of several interacting factors including the shape of the eye, the spatial pattern of refractive state across the retina and the temporal characteristics of visual stimuli experienced. In addition to these, there may be individual inherited differences in eye shape and peripheral refractive state as well as the area of retina involved in the integration of the visual growth signal and the gain of the eye growth controller. Such a multi-factorial system would explain why it is so difficult to predict who will become myopic and who will progress (and how to treat them effectively).
These studies have relevance to tens of millions of patients with refractive errors. Myopia is a leading cause of blindness but its control is an old and still controversial topic. We believe that our current work will help provide answers to several clinically relevant questions regarding the development and control of myopia, the association between near work and myopia and the identification of risk factors and predictors.
State University of New York, Oswego, BA, 1980, Biology
The City College of New York, MA, 1983, Biology
City University of New York, PhD, 1989, Biology
Oxford University, Postdoc, 1989-1991, Physiology
Cornell University, Postdoc, 1991-1994, Biopsychology
- 1994-1997: Associate Professor, Department of Biomedical Science and Disease, The New England College of Optometry
- 1995-2005: Affiliated Scientist, New England Regional Primate Research Center, Harvard Medical School
- 1998-2003: Associate Professor with tenure, Department of Biomedical Science and Disease, The New England College of Optometry
- 2002-2008: Director of Graduate Studies, The New England College of Optometry
- 2003-2008: Professor, Department of Biomedical Science and Disease, The New England College of Optometry
- 2008-Present: Professor, State University of New York, State College of Optometry
- 2008-Present: Vice President and Dean for Academic Affairs, State University of New York, State College of Optometry
- 1987-1988: NIMH – National Research Service Award – City University of New York
- 1988: ARVO NEI/Welcome Travel Fellowship
- 1989-1991: Medical Research Council (MRC) Postdoctoral Research Fellowship, Laboratory of Physiology – Oxford University
- 1991-1994: NIMH-Multidisciplinary Training Fellowship in Developmental Psychology – Cornell University
- 2009-Present: Fellow of the American Academy of Optometry (FAAO)
- 2010-Present: Fellow of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (FARVO)
- 1994-99, 2007: International Advisory Committee-Myopia International Research Foundation
- 1999: Study Section - NIH/NIEHS-Advanced Research Cooperative in Environmental Health
- 2002: Study Section - NIH/NEI-T32/35 Institutional Training Grants
- 2003: NEI Executive Summary Planning Panel-Strabismus, Amblyopia and Vision Processing
- 2003-2005: Program Planning Committee-Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
- 2004: Study Section - NIH/NEI - R03 Special Emphasis Panel
- 2004: Study Section - NIH/NEI - Vis B, Central Visual Processing (ad hoc member)
- 2004: Study Section - NIH/NEI - P30/R24 Core Grant Special Emphasis Panel
- 2005: Review Committee - NIH/NEI - Student Loan Repayment Special Emphasis Panel
- 2005: Study Section - NIH/NEI - Vis A, Anterior Eye Disease (ad hoc member)
- 2009: Co-Director, founding member, SUNY Eye Institute
- 2010: Co-Director, Future Faculty Program, Association for Schools and Colleges of Optometry
- 2012: Study Section - NEI - Biology of the Visual System (ad hoc member)
Study Section - NEI Clinical Trials - Anterior Eye, Myopia, Glaucoma and Optic Nerve
- 2013: Editorial Board, Vision Research
- 2013: Study Section – NEI Core and Training Special Emphasis Panel
Johnson & Johnson Vision Care 12/15/12-12/14/17
Experimental studies of contact lens designs for myopia control
Employ experimental models of eye growth and development of refractive errors to develop contact lenses for myopia control.
Role: Project Oversight
NIH R01 EY11228
Accommodation and the Development of Refractive Error
The experiments proposed in this continuing project investigate the spatial and temporal integration of visual stimuli for the control of eye growth in an established primate model of emmetropization. We hypothesize that changes in eye shape affect peripheral refractions, which, in turn, may drive further changes in eye growth and axial refractive state. Additional studies are proposed to explore the relationship of central visual processing to induced changes in eye growth and refractive state.
Role on project: Principal Investigator
NIH R01 EY09391
Regulation of Scleral Growth and Remodeling in Myopia
This study examines gene changes in choroids and scleras correlated with altered ocular growth rates in an experimental model of myopia.
Role on the project: Co-investigator
Selected Peer Reviewed Papers
Gong, C.R., Troilo, D., and Richdale, K. (2017) Accommodation and phoria in children wearing multifocal contact lenses. Optometry and Vision Science, 94(3):353-360.
Troilo, D. (2016) The case for lens treatments in the control of myopia progression. Optometry and Vision Science, 93(9):1045-48.
Benavente-Perez, A., Nour, A., and Troilo, D. (2014) Axial eye growth and refractive error development can be modified by exposing the peripheral retina to relative myopic or hyperopic defocus. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 55(10):6765-6773. doi:10.1167/iovs.14-14524
Zhu, X., McBrien, N., Smith III, E.L., Troilo, D., and Wallman, J. (2013) Eyes in various species can shorten to compensate for myopic defocus. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 54(4):2634-2644.
Benavente-Perez, A., Nour, A. and Troilo, D. (2012) The Effect of Simultaneous Negative and Positive Defocus on Eye Growth and Development of Refractive State in Marmosets. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 53(10): 6479-6487.
Springer, A.D., Troilo, D., Possin, D., and Hendrickson A.E. (2011) Foveal cone density shows a rapid postnatal maturation in the marmoset monkey. Visual Neuroscience, 28:473-84.
Coletta, N.J., Marcos, S., and Troilo, D. (2010) Ocular wavefront aberrations in the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus: effects of age and refractive error. Vision Research, 50(25):2515-29. (PMID 20800078)
Ivanova, E., Hwang, G.-S., Pan, Z.H., and Troilo, D. (2010) Evaluation of AAV-Mediated Expression of Chop2-GFP in the Marmoset Retina. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 51(10): 5288-96. (PMID 20484599)
Troilo, D., Totonelly, K., and Harb, E. (2009) Imposed anisometropia, accommodation, and regulation of refractive state. Optometry and Vision Science, 86(1):31-39. (PMC2504533)
Hendrickson, A., Troilo, D., Djajadi, H., Possin, D., and Springer, A. (2009) Expression of synaptic and phototransduction markers during photoreceptor development in the marmoset monkey Callithrix jacchus. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 512:218-231. (NIHMS 105010)
Shelton, L., Troilo, D., Lerner, M., Gusev, Y., Brackett, D.J., and Rada, J.S. (2008) Microarray analysis of choroid/RPE gene expression in marmoset eyes undergoing changes in ocular growth and refraction. Molecular Vision, 14:1465-1479. (PMC2504533)
Troilo, D., Quinn, N., and Baker, K. (2007) Accommodation and induced myopia in marmosets. Vision Research, 47(9):1228-1244. (PMC1892168)
Harb, E., Thorn, F., and Troilo, D. (2006) Characteristics of accommodative behavior during sustained reading in emmetropes and myopes. Vision Research, 46(16):2581-2592. (PMC1892179)
Hendrickson, A.E., Troilo, D., Possin, D.E., and Springer A. (2006) Development of neural retina and vasculature in the marmoset Callithrix jacchus. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 497(2):270-86.
Troilo, D., Nickla, D.L., Mertz, J.R., and Rada, J.S. (2006) Change in the synthesis rates of ocular retinoic acid and scleral glycosaminoglycan during experimentally altered eye growth in marmosets. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 47(5):1768-1777. (PMC1892188)
Troilo, D. and Nickla, D.L. (2005) The response to visual form deprivation differs with age in marmosets. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 46(6):1873-1881. (PMC1913220)
Nickla, D.L, Sharda, V., and Troilo, D. (2005) Temporal integration characteristics of the axial and choroidal responses to myopic defocus induced by prior form deprivation versus positive spectacle lens wear in chickens. Optometry and Vision Science, 82(4):318-327.
Saltarelli, D., Wildsoet, C., Nickla, D., and Troilo, D. (2004) Susceptibility to form deprivation myopia in chicks is not altered by an early experience of myopia. Optometry and Vision Science, 81(2):119-126.
Coletta, N.J., Marcos, S., Wildsoet, C., and Troilo, D. (2003) Double-pass measurement of retinal image quality in the chicken eye. Optometry and Vision Science, 80(1):50-57.
Nickla, D.L., Wildsoet, C.F., and Troilo, D. (2002) Diurnal rhythms in intraocular pressure, axial length and choroidal thickness in a primate model of eye growth, the common marmoset. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 43(8):2519-2528.
Nickla, D.L., Wildsoet, C.F., and Troilo, D. (2001) Endogenous rhythms in axial length and choroids thickness in chicks: Implications for ocular growth regulation. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 42(3):584-588.
Li, T., Troilo, D., and Howland, H.C. (2000) The effects of darkness and strength of diurnal rhythm on light-induced changes in the eye. Vision Research, 40(18):2387-93.
Rada, J.A., Nickla, D.L. and Troilo, D. (2000) Decreased proteoglycan synthesis associated with form deprivation myopia in mature primate eyes. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 41(8):2050-2058.
Troilo, D., Nickla, D.L. and Wildsoet C.F. (2000) Form deprivation myopia in a mature primate. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 41(8):2043-2049.
Troilo, D., Nickla, D.L. and Wildsoet, C.F. (2000) Choroidal thickness changes during altered eye growth and refractive state in a primate. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 41(6):1259-58.
Sengpiel, F., Troilo, D., Kind, P., Graham, B. and Blakemore, C. (1996) Functional architecture of area 17 in normal and monocularly deprived marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Visual Neuroscience, 13:145-160.
Troilo, D., Xiong, M., Crowley, J.C. and Finlay, B.L. (1996) Factors controlling the dendritic arborization of retinal ganglion cells. Visual Neuroscience, 13:721-34.
Glasser, A., Murphy, C.J., Troilo, D. and Howland, H.C. (1995) The mechanism of lenticular accommodation in chicks. Vision Research, 35:1525-1540.
Li, T., Troilo, D., Glasser, A. and Howland, H.C. (1995) Constant light produces severe corneal flattening and hyperopia in chickens. Vision Research, 35:1203-1209.
Troilo, D., Li, T., Glasser, A. and Howland, H.C. (1995) Differences in eye growth and the response to visual deprivation in different strains of chicken. Vision Research, 35:1211-1216.
Glasser, A., Troilo, D. and Howland, H.C. (1994) The mechanism of corneal accommodation in chicks. Vision Research, 34:1549-1566.
Fullwood, N.J., Troilo, D., Wallman, J. and Meek, K.M. (1993) Synchrotron x-ray diffraction and histochemical studies of normal and myopic chick eyes. Tissue and Cell, 25:73-85.
Troilo, D. and Judge, S.J. (1993) Ocular development and visual deprivation myopia in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Vision Research, 33:1311-1324.
Troilo, D., Howland, H.C. and Judge, S.J. (1993) Visual optics and retinal cone topography in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Vision Research, 33:1301-1310.
Troilo, D. (1992) Neonatal eye growth and emmetropisation -- A literature review. Eye, 6:154-161.
Troilo, D. and Wallman, J. (1991) The regulation of eye growth and refractive state: An experimental study of emmetropization. Vision Research, 31:1237-1250.
Schaeffel, F., Troilo, D., Wallman, J. and Howland, H.C. (1990) Developing eyes that lack accommodation grow to compensate for imposed defocus. Visual Neuroscience, 4:177-183. [reviewed in News and Views: Judge, S.J. (1990) Does the eye grow into focus? Nature, 345(6275):477-478.]
Troilo, D. (1990) Experimental studies of emmetropization in the chick. In: Myopia and the Control of Eye Growth. Ciba Foundation Symposium No. 155, John Wiley and Sons, London, pp. 89-114.
Troilo, D. and Wallman, J. (1987) Changes in corneal curvature during accommodation in chicks. Vision Research, 27:241-247. [reviewed in News and Views: Martin, G.R. (1987) How do birds accommodate? Nature, 328(6129):383.]
Troilo, D., Gottlieb, M.D. and Wallman, J. (1987) Visual deprivation causes myopia in chicks with optic nerve section. Current Eye Research, 6:993-999. [reviewed in News and Views: Judge, S.J. (1990) Does the eye grow into focus? Nature, 345(6275):477-478.]