Mark Rosenfield, MC Optom, PhD

Mark Rosenfield, MC Optom, PhD
SUNY College of Optometry 33 West 42nd Street New York, NY 10036

Computer Vision by Syndrome

The use of computers and digital electronic devices for both vocational and non-vocational activities including e-mail, internet access and entertainment is almost universal in modern society. Today’s visual requirements may include viewing laptop and tablet computers, electronic book readers, smartphones and other electronic devices both in the workplace, at home or in the case of portable equipment, in any location. Some screen sizes may necessitate very small text which the observer frequently positions at a closer viewing distance than had previously been adopted for hard copy printed materials. These increased visual demands may give rise to a variety of symptoms which have been termed computer vision syndrome (CVS). Up to 90% of computer users experience visual symptoms including eyestrain, headaches, ocular discomfort, dry eye, diplopia and blurred vision either at near or when looking into the distance after prolonged computer use. Research in our laboratory is evaluating both the causes and potential treatments for this highly prevalent condition. An inability to satisfy the visual requirements will present significant lifestyle difficulties for patients.

Dept. of Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham UK
Awarded B.Sc. (Optometry) with First Class Honours

Dept. of Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham UK
Awarded Ph.D. in Vision Sciences (Supervisor: Dr. Bernard Gilmartin)

  • 1984: Department of Vision Sciences, Aston University, UK.
  • F.W. Yeomans Prize for clinical performance.
  • 1985: Member of the College of Optometrists (MC Optom.), UK
  • 1985: British College of Optometrists, Professional Qualifying Examinations
  • Worshipful Company of Spectacle Makers prize (top clinical performance nationally) and Gibson prize
  • 1990: Fellow of the American Academy of Optometry (F.A.A.O.)
  • 1993: Distinguished Achievement Award-New York State Optometric Association.
  • 1993: OEP invited award paper
  • 1994: Award for best faculty member in overall instruction in course or clinic- awarded by students at SUNY College of Optometry
  • 1995: State University of New York: Chancellor’s Award for Excellence in Teaching.
  • 1996: Diplomate in Binocular Vision and Perception. American Academy of Optometry
  • 1998: Optometric Editors Association Journalism Contest. First Place for best technical article . Prism Adaptation: Relevance in Clinical Practice. J Optom Vis Dev 28,68-76.
  • 2005: Michael G. Harris Family Award for Excellence in Optometric Education. American Academy of Optometry.
  • 2015: State University of New York Chancellor’s Award for Excellence in Teaching

  • Rosenfield M, Gilmartin B (1998). Myopia and Nearwork. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.
  • Rosenfield M, Logan N (2009) Optometry: Science, Techniques and Clinical Management. Elsevier. Edinburgh.

Book Chapters

  • Ciuffreda KJ, Rosenfield M, Stark L (1991) The role of binocular disparity vergence eye movements in disambiguating superimposed retinal images. In: Presbyopia Research. From Molecular Biology to Visual Adaptation. Eds Obrecht G, Stark L. Plenum Press, New York pp217-221.
  • Rosenfield M. Accommodation. In: The Ocular Examination. Measurement and Findings. Ed. Zadnik K. Saunders, Philadelphia. 1997: 87-121.
  • Rosenfield M. Refractive status of the eye. In: Clinical Refraction: Principles and Practice. Eds, Borish IM, Benjamin W. J. Saunders, Philadelphia. 1998: 2-29
  • Ciuffreda KJ, Rosenfield M, Mordi J, Chen HW. Accommodation, age and presbyopia. In: Accommodative and Vergence Interactions. Ed Franzen O. Verlag, New York (in press).
  • Rosenfield M. (1998) Accommodation and myopia. In: Rosenfield M, Gilmartin B (Eds). Myopia and Nearwork. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford 91-116.
  • Goss D and Rosenfield M. (1998) Vergence and myopia. In: Rosenfield M, Gilmartin B (Eds). Myopia and Nearwork. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford 147-161.
  • Rosenfield M and Gilmartin B. (1998) Myopia and Nearwork: Causation or merely association? In: Rosenfield M, Gilmartin B (Eds). Myopia and Nearwork. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford. 193-206.
  • Katz, M, Kruger P and Rosenfield M. (2006) Visual Optics. In: Lakshmi Narayanan V, Bennett ED (Eds) Butterworth Heinemann’s review Questions for the NBEO Examination. Part One. Elsevier, St Louis. 245-260.
  • Rosenfield M.(2006) Development of accommodation in human infants. In: Duckman RH (ed) Visual Development, Diagnosis, and Treatment of the Pediatric Patient. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia. 110-123.
  • Rosenfield M. (2006) Refractive status of the eye. In: Borish’s Clinical Refraction (2nd Ed). Ed, Benjamin W. J. Butterworth-Heinemann. St Louis 3-34.
  • Rosenfield M. (2009) Subjective Refraction. In: Rosenfield M, Logan N. Optometry: Science, Techniques and Clinical Management. Elsevier. Edinburgh pp209-228.
  • Rosenfield M (2009) Clinical Assessment of Accommodation. In: Rosenfield M, Logan N. Optometry: Science, Techniques and Clinical Management. Elsevier. Edinburgh pp229-240.
  • Lay M, Wickware E, Rosenfield M (2009). Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. . In: Rosenfield M, Logan N. Optometry: Science, Techniques and Clinical Management. Elsevier. Edinburgh pp173-185.
  • Edwards K, Sherman J, Portello JK, Rosenfield M (2009) Examination of the Anterior Segment of the Eye In: Rosenfield M, Logan N. Optometry: Science, Techniques and Clinical Management. Elsevier. Edinburgh pp257-276.

  • Rosenfield M, Carrel M (2001) Effect of near-vision addition lenses on the accuracy of the accommodative response. Optometry 72, 19-24.
  • Rosenfield M, Desai R, Portello JK (2000) Do progressing myopes show reduced accommodative responses? In: Myopia 2000: Proceedings of the VIII International Conference on Myopia. (eds Thorn F, Troilo D, Gwiazda J). Boston MA. 249-253.
  • Rosenfield M, Desai R, Portello JK (2000) Los miopes en progresión presentan unas respuestas acomodativas menores? Ciencias de al Optometria 28, 6-9.
  • Gilmartin B, Rosenfield M (2000). Myopia and nearwork: an overview. Optician 219, 16-21 (6.30.00).
  • Rosenfield M, Wong NN, Solan HA.(2001) Nearwork distances in children. Ophthal Physiol Opt 21, 75-76.
  • Wong LC, Rosenfield M, Chiu NN. (2001) Vergence adaptation in children. Binoc Vision 16, 29-34.
  • Rosenfield M, Desai R, Portello JK (2002) Do progressing myopes show reduced accommodative responses? Optom Vis Sci 79, 268-273.
  • George S, Rosenfield M (2004) Blur adaptation and myopia Opt Vis Sci 81, 543-547.
  • Rosenfield M, Hong SE, George S (2004) Blur adaptation in myopes. Optom Vis Sci 81, 657-662.
  • Krumholz DM, Portello JK, Rosenfield M, Rosenbaum JD. (2006) A combination solution for routine pupillary dilation. Optometry 77, 350-3.
  • Escalante JB, Rosenfield M. (2006) Repeatability of clinical AC/A ratio measurements. Optometry 77, 229-234.
  • Casillas EC, Rosenfield M. (2006) Comparison of subjective heterophoria testing a phoropter and trial frame. Optom Vis Sci 83: 237-241.
  • Schwartz, SH, Nehmad,L., Rosenfield, M, Swanson, WH, Calero-Breckheimer, A., Modica, P., Picarelli, J. (2006) Teaching Basic Science Courses Using Web-based Clinical Cases: Experiences with BACIC. Journal of Optometric Education, 32: 23-28.
  • Haddad DE, Rosenfield M, Portello JK, Krumholz DM (2007). Does prior instillation of a topical Anesthetic alter the pupillary mydriasis produced by tropicamide (0.5%)? Ophthal Physiol Opt 27: 311-314.
  • Benzoni JA, Collier JD, McHugh K, Rosenfield M, Portello JK (2009)Does the dynamic cross cylinder test measure the accommodative response accurately? Optometry 80: 630-634.
  • Collier JD, Rosenfield M (2011)Accommodation and convergence during sustained computer work. Optometry (in press).
  • Chu C, Rosenfield M, Portello JK, Benzoni JA, Collier JD (2011) Computer vision syndrome: hard copy versus computer viewing. Ophthal Physiol Opt 31: 29-32.
  • Rosenfield M, Bababekova Y, Huang RR, Hue JE (2011) Font size and viewing distance of hand-held smart phones Opt Vis Sci (in press)
  • Rosenfield M, Gurevich R, Wickware E, Lay M (2010) Computer Vision Syndrome: Accommodative and Vergence Facility. J Behav Optom 21: 119-122.
  • Rosenfield M (2011) Computer vision syndrome: A review of ocular causes and potential treatments Ophthal Physiol Opt (in press).
  • Bababekova Y, Rosenfield M, Hue J, Huang R. (2012) Astigmatisme non corrigé et syndrome visual d’ordinateur. La Revue D’Optométrie et de contactologie. 40, 40-41.
  • Álvarez AL, Medrano SM, Rosenfield M (2012) Reliability of objective measurements of the amplitude of accommodation. Ophthal Physiol Opt 32, 133-141
  • Rosenfield M, Hue JE, Huang RR, Bababekova Y (2012) Uncorrected astigmatism, symptoms and task performance during computer reading. Ophthal Physiol Opt 32, 142-148.
  • Portello JK, Rosenfield M, Bababekova Y, Estrada JM, Álvarez AL (2012) Prevalence of computer vision syndrome (CVS) and dry eye in office workers. Ophthal Physiol Opt 32: 375-382.
  • Benzoni JA, Rosenfield M (2012) Clinical amplitude of accommodation in children between 5 and 10 years of age. Optom Vis Dev 43, 109-114.
  • Rosenfield M (2012) It’s time to stop using 20/20 in the clinic. Optom Vis Sci 89: e27.
  • Rosenfield M, Howarth PA, Sheedy JE, Crossland MD. (2012) Vision and IT displays: A whole new visual world. Ophthal Physiol Opt 32: 363-366.
  • Portello JK, Rosenfield M, Chu CA. (2013) Blink rate, incomplete blinks and computer vision syndrome. Optom Vis Sci 90: 482-487.
  • Rosenfield M, Bass S. (2013) Global Vision. Part 6. Globalisation and advances in eye care delivery. Optician. 232; 30.08.13. 17-21.
  • Rosenfield M. (2013) Global Vision. Part 7. The spread of technology. Optician. 232; 27.09.13. 36-37.
  • Hue JE, Rosenfield M, Saá G. (2014) Reading from electronic devices versus hardcopy text. Work 47: 303-307.
  • Chu CA, Rosenfield M, Portello JK (2014) Blink patterns: Reading from a computer screen versus hard copy. Optom Vis Sci 91: 297-302
  • Rosenfield M. Spectacle lenses of the future. (2014) Optician 233: 27.5.14., 22-24.
  • Long J, Rosenfield M, Helland M, Anshel J. (2014) Visual ergonomics standards for contemporary office environments. Ergonomics Australia 10: 1-7.
  • Kochurova O, Portello JK, Rosenfield M. (2015) Is the 3x reading rule appropriate for computer users. Displays 38; 38-43.
  • Rosenfield M, Jahan S, Nunez K, Chan K. (2015) Cognitive demand, digital screens and blink rate. Computers in Human Behavior 51; 403-406.
  • Rosenfield M, Portello JK. (2015) Computer vision syndrome and blink rate. Current Eye Research May 14:1-2. (Epub ahead of print) PMID: 25974683
  • Huang R, Rosenfield M. (2015) The effect of dynamic and isometric exercise on refractive state, accommodation and intra-ocular pressure. Adv Ophthalmol Vis Sysy 2(3):00047.
  • Rosenfield M, Rosenlicht TN, Huang Jones Y, Simon J. (2015) Effect of coloured overlays on computer vision syndrome (CVS). Optometry and Visual Performance 3 (3) 133-137.
  • Ciuffreda KJ, Rosenfield M (2015) Evaluation of the SVone: A Handheld, Smartphone-Based Autorefractor. (in press).
  • Portello JK, Rosenfield M, Pereira S. (2015) Effect of supplementary lenses on LogMAR visual acuity (VA). (submitted for publication).
  • Álvarez AL, Álvarez JME, Rosenfield M (2015) Age and the amplitude of accommodation measured using dynamic retinoscopy. (in press).