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OD Course Descriptions

First Year: Fall Semester

Human Bioscience I
Instructor of Record: Jerry Rapp
BVS-121FA
4.0 Credits

Human Bioscience I is the first of a three course sequence. This course provides instructions in principles of basic biochemistry, cellular physiology, histology, molecular biology and human nutrition with appropriate clinical correlations throughout the course. The framework of this course provides a foundation for the successive courses in the human bioscience sequence.

Gross Anatomy
Instructor of Record: David Krumholz
BVS-106FA
2.5 Credits

This course is included in the curriculum because it is necessary that the optometrist understand the fundamental anatomy of the entire body in order to deal successfully with a specialized part of it. Gross Human Anatomy provides not only a basic foundation in human anatomy, which will be of use in later courses, but also an appreciation that the eye is not an isolated entity. The immediate objective of this course is to introduce the student to the structural organization of the human body at the macroscopic level. The course is designed to provide the student with an understanding of the spatial and functional relationships of body systems, and to anatomical terminology. This will give the student an understanding of three-dimensional anatomical relationships, and enable the student to communicate effectively with other health care professionals. This course begins with the basics of gross human anatomy. A survey of the body’s major systems serves as a basis for which to understand regional anatomy and how disease might be caused. The head is covered in greater detail, concentrating on the anatomical systems that surround or support the eye and orbit.

Neuroanatomy
3.0 Credits

Integrated Optics I
Instructor of Record: Steven Schwartz
BVS-131FA
3.5 Credits

This is the first in a three-course sequence on clinical optics. Students learn the fundamentals of geometrical and visual optics as they apply to clinical practice. Topics include refraction at spherical and plane surfaces; image formation; thin and thick lenses; spherical ametropia; accommodation; astigmatism and cylindrical lenses; prisms; depth of field; magnification; retinal image size; reflection; and aberrations. Problem-solving skills are emphasized with the goal of developing an intuitive sense of optics that supports successful clinical interventions. Laboratories provide students the opportunity to visualize material covered in lectures.

Optometric Theory I
Instructor of Record: Mark Rosenfield
CEX-141FB
2.0 Credits

This course will introduce the student to the theoretical basis for the clinical optometric examination, covering the analysis of clinical findings and appropriate testing procedures. The theoretical concepts underlying the clinical measurements of visual resolution, as well as the etiology and correction of refractive error will be examined. An evaluation of both objective and subjective techniques for quantifying refractive error will be included. Further, the etiology, measurement and clinical management of abnormal accommodative disorders will be introduced.

Clinical Optometry I
Instructor of Records: Jennifer Gould/ Cathy Pace
CEX-151FA
2.5 Credits

The Clinical Optometry course is given as two courses in the Fall and the Spring of first year. The course will contain lecture, laboratory and clinical portions during both semesters. The lecture will focus on patient communication and case analysis. The patient communication portion will discuss how to approach a patient, perform a case history and proper medical documentation. Other topic discussions will include professionalism and ethics, cultural competence and interprofessional collaborative patient care. The case analysis portion will focus on performing patient-centric and problem-driven clinical examinations, clinical reasoning and interpretation of result. Other topic discussions will include examination and prescribing techniques for different refractive cases and development of differential diagnosis and illness scripts. The laboratory component will teach clinical techniques, proper interpretation of results and expand upon performing patient-centric and problem-driven clinical examinations. The laboratory will incorporate new technology into the traditional eye exam. During the clinical component of the course, students will act as an optometric assistant in the Primary Care clinic of the University Eye Center. Clinical Optometry I will focus on the assessment of visual acuity and determination of refractive error.

Integrative Seminar I
Instructor of Record: Susan Schuettenberg
CEI-1FA
2.0 Credits

This course teaches students how the material in the first year curriculum relates to their role as healthcare providers through a synthesis of lecture, clinical observation, case-based learning and small group discussion. Once a week, the entire class will attend a one-hour lecture with topics reflective of the ongoing course material being presented in other courses. For two additional hours per week, small seminar group observation and discussion will take place. The seminar meetings will reinforce the lecture concepts through clinical observation and case discussions relating to those observations. Lecture and small group discussions will include the participation of both basic and clinical science faculty in order to promote integration of the curricular material, and to show how the care provided is related to what is currently being learned. This will enable future clinicians to make informed clinical decisions, encourage critical thinking and promote lifelong independent learning.

First Year: Spring Semester

Human Bioscience II 
Instructor of Record: Tracy Nguyen
BVS-122SA
3.0 Credits

This course is a continuation of Human Bioscience I that begins with instructions in the lympatic system, basic immunology and commone principles of pathological mechanisms followed by a system based approach to the discussion of the functional anatomy, physiology and pathology of organ systems. The organ systems covered in this course of the human bioscience sequence include the cardiovascular, blood and renal systems. Clinical correlations to the visual system is provided throughtout the course as appropriate.

Ocular Anatomy, Biochemistry & Physiology II
Instructor of Record: Richard Madonna
BVS-182SA
3.0 Credits

The OABP sequence is given as 2 courses in the Fall and Spring semesters of the first year. Modules are delivered that cover the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of the eye, related visual structures and the visual pathway. The course is designed to emphasize the anatomy and underlying physiology of the eye and visual system particularly in relationship to a variety of important clinical conditions. Course material taught in histology, gross anatomy, neuroanatomy, and sensory visual function is heavily integrated into OABP and is emphasized throughout the course.

OABP II begins with the study of the formation and flow of aqueous and its relationship to intraocular pressure. It continues with the study of the anatomy of the vitreous, retina, optic nerve and visual pathway with emphasis on the anatomical basis of diseases of the posterior segment and neuro-ophthalmic system. The biochemistry of the visual process including the biochemistry and molecular biology of rhodopsin and cone pigments and the events that occur during the visual cascade will be studied including a discussion of color blindness, congenital night blindness and hereditary retinal degeneration. Nutritional and biochemical implications in age-related ocular disease are also explored. The course ends with the study of the development of the eye and visual system and related developmental anomalies.

Optometric Theory II
Instructor of Record: Mark Rosenfield
CEX-142S
2.0 Credits

This course is a continuation of Optometric Theory I. The clinical assessment of abnormal oculomotor function at both distance and near, and the etiologies underlying these conditions will be introduced. Treatment of abnormal accommodation, vergence and their synkinetic interactions will be discussed.

Integrated Optics II
Instructor of Record: Phil Kruger
BVS-132SA
3.5 Credits

Students learn the fundamentals of wave optics and physiological optics as they apply to image formation and clinical practice. The course integrates optical, biological, perceptual and clinical aspects. Topics include model eyes, Purkinje images, interference, diffraction, scatter and polarization, blur of the retinal image, aberrations of the eye, modulation transfer function, contrast sensitivity, photometry, fiber-optic nature of cones, entoptic images, cues for ocular accommodation, quantum optics and lasers. The goal is an intuitive understanding of the optical aspects of vision as related to clinical care. This is the second in a three-course sequence on clinical optics.

Clinical Optometry II
Instructor of Records: Jennifer Gould/Cathy Pace
CEX-152SA
2.5 Credits

This is the second course in the Clinical Optometry sequence. The course will contain lecture, laboratory and clinical portions during both semesters. The lecture will focus on patient communication and case analysis. The patient communication portion will discuss how to approach a patient, perform a case history and proper medical documentation. Other topic discussions will include professionalism and ethics, cultural competence and interprofessional collaborative patient care. The case analysis portion will focus on performing patient-centric and problem-driven clinical examinations, clinical reasoning and interpretation of result. Other topic discussions will include examination and prescribing techniques for different refractive cases and development of differential diagnosis and illness scripts. The laboratory component will teach clinical techniques, proper interpretation of results and expand upon performing patient-centric and problem-driven clinical examinations. The laboratory will incorporate new technology into the traditional eye exam. During the clinical component of the course, students will act as an optometric assistant in the Primary Care clinic of the University Eye Center. Clinical Optometry II will focus on the assessment of binocular vision and accommodation, anterior segment evaluation and provide an introduction to posterior segment evaluation.

Integrative Seminar II
Instructor of Record: Susan Schuettenberg

Visual Function: Sensory
Instructor of Records:
Module A: Steven H Schwartz
Module B: Harold Sedgwick
BVS-170SA
4.5 Credits

This course covers monocular sensory processes and visual perception. Topics include spatial and temporal visual processes; visual adaptation; color vision; psychophysical methodology; information processing; gross electrical potentials; basic visual development and senescence; form, space, and motion perception; visually- guided action; and basic visual-cognitive processes. Topics are discussed in terms of their normal function and clinically relevant deviations from normal. The anatomical and neurophysiological bases for visual performance are examined and related to clinical testing. Laboratories emphasize the measurement of these functions in assessing the visual capacities of individual patients and the demonstration of relevant visual phenomena.

Second Year: Fall Semester

Human Bioscience III
Instructor of Record: Suresh Viswanathan
BVS-223FA
3.0 Credits

This is the third and final course in the human bioscience sequence that adopts a system based approach to the functional anatomy, physiology and pathology of the endocrine, respiratory, gastrointestinal and reproductive systems. As with the previous course in this sequence, clinical correlations to the visual system is provided throughout the course as appropriate.

Pharmacology I
Instructor of Record: Miduturu Srinivas
BVS-205FB
3.0 Credits

This course is designed to acquaint students with general principles of drug action on organ systems, including the eye. The methods of administration, pharmacological actions, clinical applications and adverse effects of drugs in current clinical use will be considered in detail.

Integrated Optics III
Instructor of Record: Mark Rosenfield
BVS-233FA
3.5 Credits

In this course students obtain the knowledge and skills necessary to provide modern optical dispensing services. Optical and physical properties of ophthalmic prisms and lenses are covered in depth. Topics include lens materials, thickness, design and enhancements; ophthalmic standards; verification; safety, absorptive, high prescription and special design lenses; vertical imbalance; magnifying devices, spectacle magnification and relative spectacle magnification; frame specification, design, selection and adjustment and occupational eyewear. Laboratories are geared to developing skills in frame selection, verification and dispensing.

Visual Function: Sensorimotor I
Instructor of Record: Jordan Pola
BVS-271FA
3.0 Credits

This course is concerned with oculomotor behavior and physiology. It provides the student with a broad appreciation of the characteristics of eye movements and the functional properties of the mechanisms (e.g., neurophysiological networks, extraocular muscles) responsible for generating these movements. A central feature of the course is the utilization of control systems theory as a means to integrate and simplify some the complexities of the oculomotor behavioral and physiological data. As well as lectures, the course includes laboratory studies of basic quantitative aspects of fast and slow eye movements, and also the manner in which simple functional models of the oculomotor system can account for both normal and abnormal eye movements.

Clinical Optometry III
Instructor of Record: Joan K. Portello
CEX-243FA
3.0 Credits

This course introduces advanced diagnostic and therapeutic procedures as well as providing an overview of disorders of the anterior and posterior segments of the eye. Along with the skills covered in the Optometric Theory and Procedures I and II courses, the intern will become proficient with the slit lamp biomicroscope, the use of diagnostic pharmaceutical agents and applanation tonometry. Examination of the anterior and posterior segments will be performed using gonioscopy, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy, contact and non-contact lens fundoscopy. Additional diagnostic testing including laser interferometry, and ultrasonography will be reviewed. Students will learn to determine appropriate testing procedures, analyze and formulate treatment plans, and present cases for review.

Integrative Seminar III
Instructor of Record: Teresa Lowe
CEI–2FA
2.0 Credits

This course is designed to facilitate the student’s transition into clinical practice by using an integrative approach. The course serves as an educational vehicle for the student to develop clinical thinking in becoming a Doctor of Optometry. In the Integrative Track, the student uses case studies for developing intellectual skills founded on informed clinical decision making, critical thinking, independent and collaborative learning. Students develop a foundation for optometric practice by employing scientific knowledge, informational resources and clinic participation. Through a synthesis of classroom teaching, case-based learning, group activities and clinic participation, the student will form an individualized patient evaluation, assessment and plan. The highest standards of professional conduct and responsibility will be emphasized throughout the course.

Second Year: Spring Semester

Ocular Disease I
Instructor of Record: Mitchell Dul
BVS-251SA
4.5 Credits

The course is the first in a series of three courses detailing the pathogenesis, physiologic response, clinical manifestations, treatment and rehabilitation of conditions of the body and eye in response to local and systemic pathologic processes (e.g., infection, trauma, neoplasm) and disorders (e.g., congenital) with emphasis on the conditions of the anterior segment of the eye, related systemic conditions and the glaucomas. Epidemiological data is included to allow students to differentiate between high probability and/ or high risk conditions and low probability and/or low risk conditions. Previous course work in anatomy, physiology, pathology, epidemiology, monocular sensory processing, pharmacology and systemic medicine will provide the student with the foundation for understanding the principles and practices covered in this course.

Clinical Medicine (A)
Instructor of Record: Xiaoying Zhu
BVS-225SA
1.0 Credit

This course will consist of group discussions that are case-based and reinforce the material presented within the clinical medicine and ocular disease courses. Team-based learning will be emphasized. Homework assignments will include cases that each team will complete before the group discussion. Answers to the homework assignments will be discussed during the group discussion. Discussion groups may include instruction of certain physical exam techniques, such as cranial nerve testing, lymph node assessment and others.

Pharmacology II 
Course Coordinator: Diane T. Adamczyk
BVS-206SA
2.5 Credits

This course is specific to ocular pharmacology, building on and integrating the material taught in Pharmacology I as it applies to ocular related conditions. It covers the fundamentals of ocular pharmacology, ocular drugs, systemic drugs and how they are used to treat various ocular conditions, and their ocular effects. The student will learn the basic concepts of the drug, mechanism of action, drug-drug interactions, contraindications and its effects on the body, organs and various systems. The pharmacology as it relates to the drug’s clinical utilization will be discussed.

Contact Lens I
Instructor of Record: David Libassi
BVS-261A
3.0 Credits

This is the first half of an extensive course spanning two semesters on the art and science of prescribing contact lenses. This course will develop the principles of contact lens physiology and optics, and integrate them with your understanding of the cornea, tear film, and eyelid anatomy. Ocular measurements necessary for contact lens design will be correlated with on-eye evaluation of soft and rigid contact lenses. Oxygen requirements for safe lens wear will be contrasted for daily wear soft and rigid lenses, extended wear hydrogel lenses, and silicone-hydrogel lenses worn for continuous wear. This course emphasizes standard soft and rigid contact lens design, fitting and prescribing, as well as problem-solving in order to prepare you for fitting basic types of contact lenses as you start patient care. The laboratory sessions will support the lectures, providing the student with skills needed for lens handling, verification, pre-exam testing, lens selection, on-eye evaluation, patient education, patient education, patient instruction and problem solving.

Visual Function: Sensorimotor II
Instructor of Record: Kenneth Ciuffreda
BVS-272SA
3.0 Credits

This course is an analysis of the geometrical, psychophysical and physiological sensory and motor aspects of binocular vision, including their clinical implications. Topics include visual direction and correspondence, binocular summation/averaging, rivalry, fusion, the horopter, stereopsis, optically-based perceptual distortions/adaptation and aniseikonia, fixation disparity and vergence/accommodation motor/perceptual interactions. Laboratory sessions cover many of these topics.

Clinical Optometry IV
Instructor of Record: Joan K. Portello
CEX-244SA
3.0 Credits

The OTP III course provides an overview of disorders of the anterior and posterior segments of the eye alongside the tools that optometrists use to analyze, diagnose and manage appropriate treatment plans for their patients. This course will supplement skills learnt in OTP I and II with improved proficiency with slit lamp examination, including using fundus lenses and gonioscopy, and applanation tonometry. Students will develop binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy skills with additional help utilizing binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy simulators. The student will learn to use diagnostic pharmaceutical agents when necessary, and be introduced to advanced diagnostic procedures now available, including but not limited to anterior segment optical coherence tomography and ultrasonography of the anterior and posterior segment. The students will be continually encouraged to focus on analysis, critical reasoning, and appropriate management plans. In addition, to enhance clinical exposure, students will continue to perform pre-testing procedures in the primary care clinic throughout the semester.

Integrative Seminar IV
Course Coordinator: Teresa Lowe
CEI-2SA
2.0 Credits

This course is an extension of Integrative Seminar III. The format consists of small group, lecture and clinic. Having acquired an increased knowledge and skills base, more complex critical thinking and clinical decision making skills will be stressed. There will be more emphasis placed on self-evaluation and self-learning as a means of professional development. Participation in the patient examination will be increased. Each student will present a formal slide show citing current literature.

Third Year: Fall Semester (Summer Season)

Pediatric Optometry and Vision Development
Instructor of Record: Janelle Mallios
BVS-319FA
3.0 Credits

Pediatric Optometry and Vision Development covers the facts and testing of the developing human and his/her vision during the infant, toddler, and childhood years. The course is intended to give the third year student an understanding of the developmental processes involved in the comprehension of both the normal and abnormal development of visual spatial concepts. The first half of the course starts with a survey of general physical and psychological development, followed by basic science of visual development. The course applies this knowledge to the pediatric optometric exam and prescribing for infants and children. Clinical application of research in perceptual and cognitive development and new techniques used in evaluation with discussion of the practical aspects involved in examining and treating children from birth to five years of age, as well as those with learning related vision problems are presented. Review of relevant research of the efficacy of perceptual training and communication skills in vision therapy will also be covered.

Optometric Clinic I
Instructor of Record: Julia Appel
CEC-341RA
3.0 Credits

The third year clinical program provides the intern with a broad exposure to all facets of primary care optometry. Rotations are in the areas of primary care and in various specialty clinics. During these rotations, interns have patient-care responsibilities under the supervision of clinical faculty. The rotations are designed to allow the intern increasing levels of clinical responsibility and patient care opportunities.

Epidemiology
Instructor of Record: Mark Sherstinsky
CEP-304RA
1.0 Credit

Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to the control of health problems. As such, epidemiology is the basic science of public health and underpins the practice of health care at multiple levels (global, national, community and clinical). This course is designed to introduce optometry students to epidemiologic principles and research methods, with emphases on evidence-based clinical practice and public health in eye care. The overall course mission is to teach the student clinician to describe and understand the clinical presentation of disease and health-related events in a measured and evidence-based way. Course goals include an introduction to the following: a more critical and measured reading of ophthalmic and medical literature; the application of current and best research evidence to clinical care; study design and its translation into clinical care; and a community perspective to individual patient care.

Integrative Seminar V
Instructor of Record: Julia Appel
CEI-3RA
0.0 Credit

This course is a component of Optometric Clinic I and an extension of the Integrative Seminar sequence in years 1 and 2. Interns learn in small group settings how to apply information gained in the professional program curriculum to patient care. The emphasis is on developing the ability to think critically and obtaining the skills necessary for independent, life long learning. The one-hour course will take place weekly as an extension of the intern’s Primary Care clinic session. Attendance is mandatory. Two faculty members are assigned to six interns. A team approach is encouraged where interns and faculty will meet together in a specific location in the clinic to facilitate patient care and learning for discussion, case analysis and presentation. A greater understanding of the nuances of patient management is sought via the modeling of patient care strategies, critical thinking and the inclusion of evidence-based medicine and existing resources.

Third Year – Fall Semester

Ocular Disease II
Course Coordinator: Andrea Yang
BVS-352FA
4.0 Credits

This course is the second in a series of three courses detailing the pathogenesis, physiologic response, clinical manifestations, treatment and rehabilitation of conditions of the body and eye in response to local and systemic pathologic and developmental processes and disorders. Emphasis on the conditions of the posterior segment of the eye and related systemic conditions and material is presented in a fashion that includes integration of ocular and systemic medical concepts as well as medical, surgical and rehabilitative management concepts. Epidemiological data is included to allow students to differentiate between high-probability and/or high-risk conditions and low probability and/or low risk conditions. Previous course work in anatomy, physiology, pathology, epidemiology, monocular sensory processing, pharmacology and systemic medicine will provide the student with the foundation for understanding the principles and practices covered in this course.

Anomalies of Visual Sensorimotor Function
Instructor of Records: Audra Steiner/Ken Ciuffreda
BVS-370FA
6.0 Credits

This course will concentrate on the diagnosis and treatment of non-pathological binocular, accommodative and oculomotor conditions including strabismus and amblyopia. The course will explain the historic and current role of vision therapy within optometry, epidemiology of functional vision disorders and discuss current research. Students will become familiar and comfortable with appropriate testing, discussing findings with patients and sharing information with other professionals. The course describes neurologic adaptations to strabismus and amblyopia and remediation of these special conditions. An associated lab will familiarize students with testing and allow them to understand how to design and implement a vision therapy program.

Contact Lenses II
Instructor of Record: John Gialousakis
BVS-362RA
3.0 Credits

This course will introduce the principles of advanced contact lens fitting. The application of a variety of gas permeable, soft and hybrid lens designs will be discussed. The course will teach students fitting techniques for corneal dystrophies/degenerations, presbyopia, aphakia, the post-surgical or traumatic eye, prosthetics, torics and orthokeratology.

Optometric Clinic II
Instructor of Record: Julia Appel
CEC-342FA
3.0 Credits

This course is a continuation of Optometric Clinic I. The third year clinical program provides the intern with a broad exposure to all facets of primary care optometry. Rotations are in the areas of primary care and in various specialty clinics. During these rotations, interns have patient-care responsibilities under the supervision of clinical faculty. The rotations are designed to allow the intern increasing levels of clinical responsibility and patient care opportunities.

Optometric Practice in a Changing Health Care Environment
Instructor of Record: Richard Soden
CEP-320SA
0.0 Credit

Rapid changes in health care and in optometric practice make it essential that graduating students be well- versed in optometry’s role in the public health system. The increased scope of optometric practice has made the Doctor of Optometry a significant part of the overall health care team. As a result, students will need to understand their own interests, goals and values so they will end up in a career path that is attractive to them. This course will be taught in two parts over two semesters and will provide each student with the knowledge, skills and background required for the development of a career plan. Students will become familiar with the various modes of practice available to optometrists. Key elements of health care reform, the role of optometry in the public health system and as a member of an interprofessional team, will be highlighted along with discussions of essential non-clinical factors (e.g. Medicare, coding and billing, etc.) that each graduate will be required to know regardless of their chosen career path. A key goal of this course is to encourage students to explore the various opportunities available to them within the profession of optometry and to prepare them for that path.

Integrative Seminar VI
Instructor of Record: Julia Appel
CEI-3FA
0.0 Credit

This course is a component of Optometric Clinic II and an extension of the Integrative Seminar sequence in years 1 and 2. Interns learn in small group settings how to apply information gained in the professional program curriculum to patient care. The emphasis is on developing the ability to think critically and obtaining the skills necessary for independent, life long learning. The one-hour course will take place weekly as an extension of the intern’s Primary Care clinic session. Attendance is mandatory. Two faculty members are assigned to six interns. A team approach is encouraged where interns and faculty will meet together in a specific location in the clinic to facilitate patient care and learning for discussion, case analysis and presentation. A greater understanding of the nuances of patient management is sought via the modeling of patient care strategies, critical thinking and the inclusion of evidence-based medicine and existing resources.

Third Year: Spring Semester

Ocular Disease III
Instructor of Record: Instructor of Record: Patricia Modica
BVS-353SA
4.5 Credits

This course is the third in a series of three courses detailing the pathogenesis, physiologic response, clinical manifestations, treatment and rehabilitation of conditions of the body and eye in response to local and systemic pathologic and developmental processes and disorders. Emphasis is on the conditions of the neuro-ophthalmic and neurologic systems, including psychiatric conditions and acquired brain injury. It also integrates additional medical topics that include cardiac disease, endocrinology. Material is presented in a fashion that includes integration of ocular and systemic medical concepts as well as medical, surgical and rehabilitative management concepts. Epidemiological data is included to allow students to differentiate between high-probability and/or high-risk conditions and low probability and/or low risk conditions. Previous course work in neuro-anatomy, physiology, pathology, epidemiology, pharmacology and systemic medicine will provide the student with the foundation for understanding the principles and practices covered in this course.

Low Vision
Instructor of Record: Rebecca Marinoff/Richard Soden
CEX-249SA
1.0 Credits

As the population continues to age, optometrists will be confronted with a greater need to manage their visually impaired patients with low vision rehabilitation. This course will overview the evaluation, management and treatment options for individuals who are visually impaired and legally blind. After obtaining an appropriate case history, students will learn how to perform a series of functional tests to evaluate the visual capabilities of the patient. Ultimately the student will be able to prescribe the appropriate optical and non-optical devices for their patients, as well as appropriately refer for additional services. In addition, students will learn what low vision rehabilitation encompasses. This course will also cover the psycho-social aspects that patients with low vision may experience as well as the community resources available to visually impaired individuals. It is expected that after completing this course, students will be able to apply the knowledge they receive by performing low vision examinations in clinical settings.

Optometric Clinic III
Instructor of Record: Julia Appel
CEC-343SA
3.0 Credits

This course is a continuation of Optometric Clinic I and II. The third year clinical program provides the intern with a broad exposure to all facets of primary care optometry. Rotations are in the areas of primary care and in various specialty clinics. During these rotations, interns have patient-care responsibilities under the supervision of clinical faculty. The rotations are designed to allow the intern increasing levels of clinical responsibility and patient care opportunities.

Public Health
Instructor of Record: Mort Soroka
CEP-310SA
2.5 Credits

This course introduces the student to major health policy issues and examines the role of government in the health care system. Much of government policy relates to the payment systems of Medicare and Medicaid and regulation. Health care reform legislation impacts on all financing programs; private and governmental. New organizational structures such as Accountable Care Organizations (ACO’s) and health care exchanges,will impact on the delivery and quality of care. The course introduces basic principles (such as supplyand demand and quality assurance) in health care economics. The economics of health care markets and provider payment systems, especially managed care and third party programs and vision plans are covered. Of special emphasis is the role of optometry in the Medicare and Medicaid program and managed care and coding in third party programs. This course prepares optometry students to analyze and debate health care policy issues. Sessions are designed to help students understand how politics, economics, professional, social and ethical values contribute to health policy development and implementation. Specific policy issues reviewed include interprofessional relations, licensure, board certification, professional standards, cost containment, equity and access to care, quality improvement electronic medical records, complementary and alternative medicine, managed care systems, health care law, workforce and health care ethics. The course also addresses health law, health care reform, quality assurance, professional standards, clinical practice guidelines and regulation, disease management strategies, health disparities and health literacy and emerging legislative efforts and initiatives within health care. The history of research ethics, medical research oversight, institutional review boards, privacy and HIPAA are also discussed.

Optometric Practice in a Changing Health Care Environment (B) (Conclusion)
Instructor of Record: Richard Soden
CEP-320SA
2.5 Credits

This is the second and concluding, part of Optometric Practice in a Changing Health Care Environment. Rapid changes in health care and in optometric practice make it essential that graduating students be well- versed in optometry’s role in the public health system. The increased scope of optometric practice has made the Doctor of Optometry a significant part of the overall health care team. As a result, students will need to understand their own interests, goals and values so they will end up in a career path that is attractive to them. This course will be taught in two parts and will provide each student with the knowledge, skills and background required for the development of a career plan. Students will become familiar with the various modes of practice available to optometrists. Key elements of health care reform, the role of optometry in the public health system and as a member of an interprofessional team, will be highlighted along with discussions of essential non-clinical factors (e.g. Medicare, coding and billing, etc.) that each graduate will be required to know regardless of their chosen career path. A key goal of this course is to encourage students to explore the various opportunities available to them within the profession of optometry and to prepare them for that path.

Integrative Seminar VII
Instructor of Record: Julia Appel
CEI-3SA
0.0 Credit

This course is a component of Optometric Clinic III and an extension of the Integrative Seminar sequence in years 1 and 2. Interns learn in small group settings how to apply information gained in the professional program curriculum to patient care. The emphasis is on developing the ability to think critically and obtaining the skills necessary for independent, life long learning. The one-hour course will take place weekly as an extension of the intern’s Primary Care clinic session. Attendance is mandatory. Two faculty members are assigned to six interns. A team approach is encouraged where interns and faculty will meet together in a specific location in the clinic to facilitate patient care and learning for discussion, case analysis and presentation. A greater understanding of the nuances of patient management is sought via the modeling of patient care strategies, critical thinking and the inclusion of evidence-based medicine and existing resources.